The Faculty of the Ambassador College
Graduate School of Education
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Doctor of Philosophy
Herman L. Hoeh
1966, 1969 Edition
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Early History of Germany
Antiquity of the German Reich
Germans Shape World Affairs
The Answer Found
Did the Assyrians Invade Europe?
What Did Assyrians Look Like?
Why Germans Call Themselves "Deutschen"
What Language Did They Speak?
Semitic by Race, Not Language
The Ancient Kings of the Germans
The Early Settlers of Europe
Kings of Ancient Germany
Abraham in Early European History
Europe's Early History Suppressed
Abraham in the Austrian Chronicle
Jews Gain Power in Danube Civilization
Jewish Kings from Austrian Chronicle
End of Jewish Predominance
The Conquests of Odin and Danish History
What the History of Denmark Reveals
The Genealogy of Dan I
"Hu the Mighty"
The Kings of Denmark
Denmark Enters Roman History
Christianity Introduced on the Throne
Scotland -- Key to History of New World
What Historians Claim
First Major Settlement
Line of Judah in Scotland
Earliest History of Scotland
Early Line of Scottish Kings
Kings of Cruithne Continued
They Crossed the Atlantic
The Little Ice Age
Whites Did Not Become Indians
American Indian Tradition
Early Time of Migration
Chronology of Mexico
The History of Toltecs at Tullan
The City-State of Culhaucan
The Chichimecs at Texcoco
The History of Spain
Only Recently Suppressed
Earliest Kings over the Spanish
Invasion from Africa
Chaos in Spain
Time of the Sea Powers
Italy, Home of Pagan Religion
Italy in the Ancient World
What Italian History Reveals
The History of Etruria
The History of the Latins
The Story of the Peruvian Indians
Modern Scholarship Discarded the Facts
What Archaeologists Found
Illustration from Burma
The Inca Rulers
Ancient Persia and Turkestan
Early Kings of Persia
The Second Race
The First Race
Turkestan, Turks and Mongols
The History of Armenia
Trojan Migration to France
Trojan Kings of Isauria
Trojan Kings of Sicambria and Pannonia
Kings of Agrippina
Princes of Brabant
Dukes of Brabant
Kings of Frisia
Dukes of Frisia
Second Group of Kings of Frisia
Trojan Kings of the Belgians
Kings of the Celts in Gaul
Chapter XII A
Further Migrations to France
The Kings of the Franks
Dukes of the East Franks
The Hapsburgs Enter
The Dukes of Gaul
Kings of France
History of Sweden and the Saxons
The Record Speaks
Dynasty of Yngling
Dynasty of Stenkil
The History of Arabia
Who Were the First Arabs?
The Jorhamites of Hejaz
The Kingdom of Yemen
Arabia's Indian-Ocean Neighbors
The Miracle of the Red Sea
Do Miracles Happen Today?
Background of the Story
Where Is Goshen?
The Land of Rameses
Goshen During the Plagues
The Night of the Exodus
Israel Built Pyramids
What Road Did Israel Take?
Where Are These Places?
Crossing the Red Sea
Egypt Left Desolate
Egypt's Historians Admit What Happened
Journey to Petra
After Mount Sinai -- Where?
What Does "Kadesh" Mean?
Located in Mount Seir!
Israel Whipped in Seir
Yet Another Proof!
Where Was the "Wilderness of Wandering"?
Encampments Listed in Order
Bene-Jaakan is Kadesh!
The Return to Kadesh
"Sela" Another Name for Petra
Where Did Aaron Die?
Where Was the King's Highway?
Journey Northward in the Arabah
Petra Occupied by Israel
Where Did the Twelve Apostles Go?
Jesus' Commission Tells
"House of Israel" Identified
What New Testament Reveals
Three Missing Words
Wars Reveal Where
To Whom Did Peter Write?
Remnant of Ten Tribes on Shores of Black Sea
What Greek Historians Report
Simon Peter in Britain!
And Andrew His Brother
And the Other Apostles?
And Ireland Too!
Paul in Britain, Too?
On the Shores of the Caspian Sea
Where Did Matthew Go?
Since the First Man
Uncovering the Facts
How Geologists Think
Discarding the Facts
Facts of Geology
Confirmation of Genesis One
The World of Adam
The Sin of Cain and Geology
Early Post-Flood World
The Enigma of Dynasty I and II of Kish Resolved
Ethiopian King List
Dynasty of Menelik I
The Christian Sovereigns
Dynasty of Atse
Sovereigns Issued from Zagwe
A Jewish Dynasty
House of Gondar
Tribe of Ori
Line of Ham
Kashmir -- Chronology from the Rajatarangini
Restored Gonandiya Dynasty
The Dynasty of Utpala
First Lohara Dynasty
Second Lohara Dynasty
The first volume of the COMPENDIUM OF WORLD HISTORY exposed the
radical new interpretation of history now taught on all levels of
modern education. It revealed the fallacy of the "historical method."
It explained WHY God is left out of history.
Volume I restored the history of ancient Egypt, of Assyria and
Babylonia, of Media and India, of Greece, Ireland and Britain. This
volume completes that restoration. For the first time, in this second
volume, the early history of Europe will be made plain. Its connection
with the New World, with American Indian civilization, with the early
Biblical heroes is an astounding revelation.
EARLY HISTORY OF GERMANY
The time has come to reveal the true history of Europe.
The Germans for centuries have dominated the heartland of Western
Europe. Because of the geographic position Germany's transportation
lines constitute the vital arteries of the continent. Without the
beating of the German heart, Europe would lose its economic and
political prominence in world affairs.
Ancient Roman writers would have us believe that the Germans in
the Roman heyday were mere barbarians, an insignificant people roaming
the forests of northern Europe. Was this Roman report the whole truth?
Were the ancient Roman writers keeping back from their people the facts
of German history?
Rome conquered Spain, Gaul, Southern Britain, all North Africa to
the Sahara, Illyria, Greece, Asia to the Euphrates. But Rome had to
draw its boundary in the north along the Rhine. Why? Why was Rome not
able to subdue all Germany? Why, after centuries of bloodshed, did Rome
finally succumb to the hammer blows of the Germanic Goths and Vandals?
It is high time we were told the true history of early Germany.
The origin of the German people in Europe is rooted in patriarchal
times. The history of early Germany, suppressed by the Romans, was
revived briefly in the German-dominated Middle Ages. But before the
close of the seventeenth century not even the Germans remembered their
past. It had been stamped out in the name of education and religion.
But not all was lost. From early documents and local traditions it
is still possible to recover what has, in recent centuries, been buried
under the rubble of modern educational superstition. The Germans
themselves are in great part responsible for this condition. They
fostered modern historical concepts. They have tried to hide their past
even from themselves -- just as they did at the close of the Hitler
era. If the Germans admitted to themselves and the world who they
really are, all the world would recognize in Imperial Germany the
reconstituted Assyrian Empire -- once the terror of all the civilized
ANTIQUITY OF THE GERMAN REICH
Germany has set herself up as the bulwark of European
civilization. Germany for centuries has claimed to stand as the wall of
defense against the barbarism of Asia.
The German Reich long endured as the oldest political institution
in Continental Europe. The German people called their Reich the Holy
Roman Empire. It bore rule over Europe for a thousand years. This "Holy
Roman Empire of the German People" was officially designated by the
Church in the Middle Ages as "The Kingdom of God" on earth. Its
citizens, the Germans, felt themselves true Romans and bearers of the
Christian Reich or kingdom. They were therefore the chosen people of
the Christian era, entrusted with a world-mission to be the protectors
German leaders and philosophers have never forgotten this notion
of the Middle Ages that the German, in place of the Jew, has a special
mission from God.
This strange concept, which lies behind modern political thinking
in Germany, is plainly stated in the German work "Die Trag"die des
Heiligen Reiches" -- in English, "The Tragedy of the Holy Roman
Empire." It is by Friedrich Heer. It is a remarkable volume. It lays
bare the reason for the secret motives of the German to dominate Europe
-- and the world.
GERMANS SHAPE WORLD AFFAIRS
The story of the ancestry of the German people, and their role in
prophecy, is one of the strangest stories ever written. It is gripping
with interest, amazing -- yes, astounding!
"The History of Germany," writes Bayard Taylor, "is not the
history of a nation, but of a race ... Thus, even before the fall of
the Roman Empire, it becomes the main trunk out of which branch
histories of nearly all European nations, and ... the connecting link
between ancient and modern history. The records of no other race throw
so much light upon the development of all civilized lands during a
period of fifteen hundred years" ("History of Germany", page iii).
Germany has contributed more military leaders than any other
nation in history. Its governments have, in the past, claimed the right
to rule the "Christian world." The German State, from its beginning,
has nearly always been a confederation of states -- often an empire of
German ruling over non-German. It is the German people who, more than
once, have believed themselves to be the "Herrenvolk" -- the Master
The German people number over one hundred million throughout the
world today. They are composed of numerous small tribes. Nations,
remember, are families grown big. Take Israel as an example. The nation
Israel descended from one man, Jacob (who was renamed Israel upon his
conversion -- Genesis 35:9-10). But Israel had 12 sons. His family
therefore was divided into 12 tribes. One reads in the Bible about "the
12 tribes of Israel" -- Judah, Dan, Ephraim, Levi, etc. (Genesis
The same is true of the German people. of all these tribes,
perhaps the most famous name to Americans is that of the Hessians. The
British hired numerous Hessians in their effort to put down the
American Revolution which began in 1776. The Hessians were known to
Roman historians by the tribal name "Hatti." Other Germans bore the
names "Alemani" "Suabi," and "Quadi," the "Casuri." The Romans called
them collectively Germani, meaning "War-men" (from the "Encyclopedia
Britannica", article, "Germany").
But from where did all these Germanic people come?
Here is the answer of history: "There can be no doubt that they
Black and Caspian seas," states "Smith's Classical Dictionary",
article, "Germania," p. 361. Ancient historical records confirm this
The Germans can be traced in historical records to the regions
surrounding the Black and Caspian seas, which border on the ancient
Biblical Mesopotamia. This is the region where civilization commenced
and from where the patriarchs came!
THE ANSWER FOUND
Ancient German tradition claims that their oldest city, Trier, was
founded by Trever or Trebeta, a son of Ninus, king of Assyria.
"The inhabitants of Trier maintain that their city is the oldest
in all Europe," writes Josef K. L. Bihl in his textbook "In deutschen
Landen", page 69. "Trier was founded," he continues, "by Trebeta, a son
of the famous Assyrian King Ninus. In fact, one finds ... in Trier the
inscription reading, 'Trier existed for 1300 years before Rome was
Ninus, according to Roman, Greek and Persian records, was the
first ruler who began the systematic conquest of the ancient world
after the death of Nimrod. He established the Assyrian Empire as the
chief power over Eastern Europe and Southwest Asia, reported Diodorus
of Sicily in his History.
But how is it possible that the oldest German city, Trier, founded
over 2000 years before the birth of Christ, should be built by a son of
Ninus, the renowned King of ancient Assyria? What connection have the
Germans with Assyria?
Jerome, who lived at the time when the Indo-Germanic tribes were
invading Europe, provides this startling answer: "For 'Assur (the
Assyrian) also is joined with them' " (Letter 123, sec. 16, "Nicene and
Post-Nicene Fathers"; quote is from Psalm 83:8).
DID THE ASSYRIANS INVADE EUROPE?
Yes! Jerome said so! But how did he know?
He saw them! He was an eyewitness to their migrations from
Mesopotamia and the shores of the Black and Caspian seas!
Now consider what Sylax, the author of the "Periplus," who lived
about 550 B.C., writes of the southern shores of the Black Sea: "The
coast of the Black Sea ... is called Assyria" (from page 261 of Perrot
and Chipiez's "History of Art in Sardinia, Judaea, Syria and Asia
Minor", Vol. II.) From there the Assyrians moved north.
Only 300 years before Jerome, the Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder
declared the "Assyriani" -- the Assyrians -- were dwelling north of the
Black Sea ("Natural History", IV, 12, page 183). But the Assyrians did
not remain there. They are not there today. of course not -- they
migrated into Central Europe -- where the Germans live today!
WHAT DID ASSYRIANS LOOK LIKE?
What did the ancient Assyrians look like? Here is the answer: "In
the Zagros hills and across the plain to the Tigris, there lived a ...
fair-haired ... people akin to the Guti (the Goths) who ... remained in
what was afterwards Assyria, the neighbour land to Akkad" (page 5 of
"The Sumerians", by C. Leonard Woolley).
When the ancient Greek writers wanted to distinguish the Assyrians
and their Hebrew captives from the Arameans or Syrians, the Greeks
often called both Assyrians and their Hebrew captives "Leucosyri" --
meaning "whites" or "blonds" as distinct from the very brunette Syrians
who still live in Mesopotamia.
WHY GERMANS CALL THEMSELVES "DEUTSCH"
The Germans do not call themselves "German." They refer to
themselves as Deutschen, and to their country as Deutschland.
When the Assyrians or Germans appeared in Europe, they claimed
Tuitsch as their ancestor! That is where the name "Deutsch" comes from!
"Tuysco, the most ancient and peculiar god of all the Germans ...
of this Tuisco, the first and chiefest man of many among the Germans,
and after whom they do call themselves Tuytshen, that is, duytshes or
duytsh people, I have already spoken." So writes Verstegan in his 1605
publication entitled "Restitution of Decayed Intelligence: in
Whenever a German calls himself Deutsch, he is therefore saying he
is a descendant of Tuitsch (Tuisco or Tuisto in Latin). And when he
terms his country Deutschland, he is saying his land is Tuitsch's land.
Who this Tuitsch is will be made plain in Chapter II.
WHAT LANGUAGE DID THEY SPEAK
European scholars have thoroughly studied the language of the land
of Hatti -- the ancestors of the Hessians. It is an Indo-Germanic
tongue -- numerous words of which were akin to Old High German. So many
similarities were found that Edgar Sturtevant had to declare: "To me it
seems incredible that so remarkable a situation developed in two
languages independently. I feel compelled to trace the Germanic ... to
a common origin" with the language of Hatti -- common tongue of the
Assyrians in Asia Minor (from "A Comparative Grammar", page 240).
Scholars admit that for centuries the language of the people who
inhabited Assyria was not merely Semitic. Semitic was the late literary
language of Assyria -- the language of scholars, the language of
international commerce. Modern historians and archaeologists assume
that the common tongue of all Assyrian people was Semitic. They have no
proof. So noted an Assyriologist as Sydney Smith admitted "... that the
documents from Asia Minor and from east of Tigris are couched in
Semitic dialects spoken by men unable to pronounce all the Semitic
consonants ..." (p. xi, from "Early History of Assyria to 1000 B.C.").
The same circumstance occurred during the Middle Ages all over
Europe. The language of almost all European scholars -- and even their
names -- until the time of the Protestant Reformation was Latin -- but
Latin was not the common tongue of the people! Because most of the
literature of Germany was in Latin during the Middle Ages does not
prove that the common people spoke Latin.
SEMITIC BY RACE, NOT LANGUAGE
Asshur was a son of Shem. But after the tower of Babel, when the
languages of the world were confused (Genesis 11), most Assyrians no
longer spoke a Semitic tongue, but rather Indo-Germanic and related
tongues! The Germans, therefore, are Semitic by race, but not by
In the days of Abraham, the Germans or Assyrians formed a great
confederation of states or tribes, speaking several different languages
(Josephus' "Antiquities of the Jews", book I, ch. 9). One king of the
Assyrians -- already discussed -- was "Tidal, king of nations" (Genesis
14:1). The name Tidal is Indo-Germanic, not Semitic.
Most scholars have never been conscious of the fact that the use
of the Semitic language in Assyria was due to the rising influence of
the Aramaic people (Genesis 10:22) in Mesopotamia and certain of the
sons of Abraham ("Antiquities", book I, ch. XV, sect. 1). So prominent
did they become that Mesopotamia is called "Padan-Aram" -- the plain of
Aram -- in the Bible (Genesis 28:22).
THE ANCIENT KINGS OF THE GERMANS
The settlement of the Assyrians and related peoples in early
Europe is summarized by several writers in the early Middle Ages. The
list of the early kings presented here is from the "Bayerische Chronik"
and "Deutsche Chronik" by Johannes Turmair, Abensberg, 1526.
The traditional events assigned to each ancient German ruler are
confirmed by both archaeological evidence and the fragmentary comments
of classical historians.
The "Bayerische Chronik" is very important for the history of
Central Europe. It proves that German history was correctly preserved
in song and poetry and in contemporary written records down to Roman
times. It further proves that the length of time from the Flood to
Roman times was accurately preserved except for an overlooked 24 years.
This period was the 24 years from Abram's year 75 to his year 99. The
later chroniclers, who placed in parallel German and Hebrew history,
universally reckoned the 430 years from the Covenant that was confirmed
with Abraham to Sinai as beginning when Abram was 75 years old, instead
of 99. They therefore placed the Flood 24 years too late in history.
The German chronicles that were the basis of Turmair's work placed
the Flood 131 years before the coming of the German patriarch Tuisto
into Europe. They should have reckoned 131 plus 24 -- that is, 155
years. With this one exception, all dates from Tuisto down to the
burning of Rome in 390 B.C. need no correction. All that is necessary
is to add the separate lengths of reign. There are no missing lengths
German history commences with an extensive settlement of farmers
in Europe from the Don River to the Rhine. The date of this migration
into Europe from Mesopotamia and the Near East is placed at 2214 B.C.
by German history -- just 155 years after the Flood and 40 years after
the Tower of Babel.
BEGINNING OF GERMAN OR ASSYRIAN HISTORY
The real beginnings of Assyrian history were not presented in
Volume I. They are restored here. One account begins with the reign of
Nimrod in 2194 -- after the 60-year reign of Cush. Cush was the first
Belus -- the word means "lord" -- who bore rule after the Flood.
Early Rulers of Assyria
and Babylon Lengths of Reign Dates
Saturn: the Nimrod of Scripture, 56 2194-2138
known also as Ninus I.
Belus: great lord of Assyria 55 2138-2083
-- a title of Shem as lord
over all his family. The
title was later taken by Asshur.
Ninus II: conquered the 52 2100-2048
Middle East in 17 years
(2100-2083), while his
father was recognized as
supreme ruler, (see
Ninus is the name of
Asshur used by classical
Semiramis or Ishtar 42 2048-2006
Ninyas: called Zames 38 2006-1968
(see Vol. 1 for history).
THE EARLY SETTLERS OF EUROPE
The "Bavarian Chronicle" records in detail the earliest settlers
of Europe after the Deluge. Their encampments and habitations have been
recovered by archaeological research and are labeled the "Neolithic"
migrations that traversed the Danube and adjoining valleys.
Shem or Tuitsch came into Europe with members of his family, as
well as with certain of the sons of Japheth and two of the sons of Ham
who were of the white stock. From these have descended most of the
present-day nations of Europe. The descendants of Shem include many
sons of Joktan, son of Heber, and a number of the sons of Mash, son of
Aram. The Biblical names (Genesis 10) of the grandsons and
great-grandsons of Shem are clearly preserved in most instances by the
"Chronicle". In the following chart, together with the names of the
patriarchal settlers, appear either the areas settled, the tribes which
sprang from them, or their Biblical names. An historical or classical
map should be consulted for location of geographic names. In later
times the descendants of these early heroes migrated west, south, north
and east under population pressure.
Dukes settled by Shem
in Europe Identity, or Area settled
1. Sarmata, son of settled Sarmatia; is the
Joktan Hazarmaveth of Gen. 10:26;
colonized south Arabia;
a son Tanaus gave his name
to the river Tanais, now
called the Don.
2. Dacus, son of Mash, settled Dacia, later also
grandson of Aram colonized in Denmark
3. Geta, another son from whom came certain of
of Mash (included in the Getae of Roman history
not in "Bavarian
4. Gotha Gether from whom came the Goths
5. Tibiscus, late settled on the river
Latin spelling of Theiss or Tibiscus;
Tiobo, an Italian descendants migrated into
spelling of Jobab Germany (see "Encyclopedia
(Gen. 10:29) Britannica", article
6. Moesa, Mash settled Mysia and Moesia
7. Phrygus, or Brigus, settled in Phrygia and
son of Mash (Gen. Europe
8. Thynus, son of Mash settled Bithynia in Asia
9. Dalmata, Almodad settled Dalmatia on Adriatic
10. Jader, Jerah (v .26), founded the port called
his descendants also Jaderia Colonia in Illyria
settled in Arabia
11. Albanus or Albion, for whom Albania is named,
Abimael (v. 28) and also Albion or Britain;
his descendants early
migrated to the Isle of
12. Sabus or Sau, Sheba settled on the river Save;
(v. 28) migrated to Italy as
13. Pannus or Benno, settled Pannonia
son of Mash
14. Sala or Salon built the town Sala; gave
Shelah (v. 24) his name to river Sal
15. Azalus or Aezel, ancestor of the Azali;
Uzal (v. 27) also settled in Aezeland
16. Hister, the Joktan settled Istria; Hister
of the Bible (Gen. means same in Indo-European
10:25) tongues that Joktan does
in Hebrew -- water course
17. Adulas or Adler, anciently dwelt on Upper
Hadoram (v. 27); Rhine; his son Than gave
colonized in Arabia his name to the river
Thonau, now called the
18. Dicla, Diklah thought to have dwelt on
(v. 27) Upper Rhine; his
descendants later migrated
to Gedrosia in Persia
l9. Obalus or Elb, from him the river Elbe
Obal (v. 28) takes its name
20. Epirus Ophir colonized Asia from Epirus
21. Eber built Ebersau -- the
Eburodunum of Ptolemy's
22. Hoeril, Havilah gave his name to river
(Gen. 10:29) Havel or Havila (Jacobus
Schatz: "Atlas Homannianus
Illustratus", p. 121); from
him descended the Heruli
The white descendants of the following patriarchs also colonized
parts of Europe:
23. Arcadius, father of the settled Arcadia in Greece
Arkites (Gen. 10:17)
24. Emathius, father of settled Emathia in Macedonia
Hamathites (Gen. 10:18)
25. Tiras, son of colonized Thrace
26. Moska, Meshech -- colonized east of the
son of Japheth Carpathians
27. Javan, son of Hebrew name for Greece is
28. Thubal, son of Josephus records that
Japheth certain of his children
29. Gomer, son of dwelt for a time in Italy
30. Asch, Ashkenaz -- his descencants mixed with
son of Gomer the Goths -- whence Jews
who settled in Central
Europe acquired name of
31. Reif or Rus, settled in Scythia and
Riphath -- son of White Russia
32. Tagus, Togarmah -- dwelt for a time in Southern
son of Gomer Europe
KINGS OF ANCIENT GERMANY
Early Kings of German Lengths of Reign Dates
1. Tuitsch or Tuisto 176 2214-2038
Chief of thirty-two dukes. Noah gave him all the land between the
Don River and the Rhine or what was called Grossgermania. This is the
beginning of the "neolithic" settlement of Europe. Tuitsch is,
according to all ancient German commentaries and chronicles, a son of
Noah. But which son? Noah adopted Tuitsch's children as his own. The
ancient Germans understood the name Tuitsch to be the title "Teacher."
He was therefore the great patriarch of his family who taught the
divine will to his children.
Tuitsch is the father of Mannus (who is the Assyrian Ninus). The
son of Mannus, Trebeta, is the same man who is called the son of Ninus
in classical writers. The son of Mannus or Ninus -- Trebeta -- built
Trier, the first town of Germany. Since the Bible calls this Ninus (who
built Nineveh), Asshur, Tuitsch is therefore Shem!
Tuitsch (Shem) left Europe for Egypt in 2038. His appearance in
Egyptian chronological records of Dynasty I dates his arrival and
government in 2037. From Armenia Tuitsch left 155 years after the Flood
(131 plus 24) -- see the comments at the beginning of this chapter.
With him were twenty-two descendants plus eight from Japheth and two
from Ham. Tuitsch made his headquarters at Deutz (today Koeln-Deutz).
The country is called Deutschland after him -- that is, the land of the
great Patriarch or Teacher, Shem. In the 25th year of his reign
(2190-2189) Tuitsch held a state assembly, divided lands among his
descendants and ordained laws. He also brought more colonies from
2. Mannus or Mann 72 1978-1906
For the last 60 years of Tuitsch's or Shem's reign in Germany, he
governed his family from Egypt and Italy. It was not until 1978 that
Mannus assumed the government over Western Europe, succeeding his
father Tuitsch. At the beginning of his reign he sends out colonies to
France and Asia Minor. His son Herman establishes the kingdoms of
Phrygia, Mysia and Bithynia in Mannus' 34th year (1945-1944). Another
son Trieber or Trebeta, built Trier. Nerus, another son, settled in the
Netherlands. This Mannus is the Assyrian Ninus and is Asshur, son of
Shem. Asshur means "strength" in Hebrew and has the same sense as
Mannus -- masculinity -- in German.
3. Eingeb or Ingaevon 36 1906-1870
This son of Mannus or Ninus -- Asshur -- was the German Mercury.
His wife Freia was the German Venus. He instituted the observance of
Weinnachten of December 24. Eingeb is responsible for settling Germans
on the North Sea from Denmark to Dunkirk. He sent his general Brigus
from the Danube valley to secure Spain against the African Amazons
(female warriors). Myrein, queen of the African Amazons advanced up the
Danube but was defeated and slain by Eingeb's generals Seiphyl and
4. Ausstaeb or Istaevon 50 1870-1820
Son of Eingeb, Ausstaeb was the German Mars. From him are
descended the Rheinlanders. In his days a great drought devastated
5. Herman 63 1820-1757
Son of Ausstaeb. He taught the philosophy that war and to die in
battle is most pleasing to God. He introduced the arts of warmaking to
the Germans. The Druids began to flourish in Germany. Herman settled
the heart of Germany, whose people were called Hermanduri or Hermiones
6. Mers 46 1757-1711
Son of Herman. The city of Merseburg is named after him. The
Dithmarsii descended from him. Oryz, the Egyptian god-king Osiris, came
with his wife Eisen up the Danube valley to Mers. They left Germany and
went to Italy on their way back to Egypt. Cultural development of
Germany through contact with Egypt in days of Joseph -- beer making,
agriculture, forging and medicine were brought to Germany.
7. Gampar 44 1711-1667
Son of Mers. He was the inventor of beer brewing. His daughter
Araxa became one of the wives of Libys (the Egyptian and Spanish
Hercules), the son of Oryz, and gave birth to Tuscus, Schyth,
Agatyrsus, Peucinger and Gutho.
8. Schwab 46 1667-1621
Son of Gampar. He gave his name to Schwaben. In his reign Eisen
came to Germany and taught the people various crafts.
9. Wandler 41 1621-1580
Son of Schwab. Ancestor of the German Wenden or Vandals, who were
first known at the Weser, next in the countries north of the Elbe;
afterwards, a colony went into Spain, then into Africa where they
restored the Roman Empire; their kingdom was demolished by General
Belisarius. The cities of Luebeck, Rostoch, Dantzig, and others are the
relics of those first Vandals who did not migrate to North Africa.
These German Vandals are different from the Wends called Slavi,
Slavonians, Poles, Bohemians who settled in the ancient lands of the
10. Deuto 27 1580-1553
Son of Wandler, gave his name to the Teutones. He led a campaign
into France and built there the cities of Vannes, Sens, Santgenge and
Toulouse. He was deified as the German Mercury, as Eingeb had
11. Alman (Allmann or Altman) 64 1553-1489
Son of Deuto, was the German Hercules. Famous for use of trained
lions in war. Bore a lion in his shield. Bavarians, who descended from
him, still use a lion on their coat of arms. He had many sons. Norein
received Noricum (in Bavaria today). Norein was the father of part of
the Bavarians. Haun was the father of the German Huns and lived with
his brothers Glan and Schyter. Helvos was the father of the Helvetti in
Switzerland. Baier ruled Bavaria. Mied and Math were the ancestors of
the Mediomatrices in Alsace. Theur went to foreign lands.
12. Baier 60 1489-1429
Son of Alman. He sent a great army of Germans and Wends from
Germany, Denmark and Gothland to the Balkans. One group, the Goths
under Gebreich and Vilmer, settled on the river Theissa and lived there
as the Getae till the time of Valentinian. Another group, including the
German Amazons, proceeded down the Danube valley to the Black Sea and
on through the Crimea and the Palus Maeotis to Armenia and Cappadocia
and the Taurus mountains. Here they were known as the Cimmerians. Baier
was also known as Bojus of Bavaria since he was the ancestor of many
Bavari. He built Prague.
13. Ingram or Ingramus 52 1429-1377
Son of Baier. He sent many German colonists to Asia Minor.
Tanhauser, king of the Germans in Asia Minor, and his priestess
Schmirein, led a conquering army through Syria as far as Egypt. Built
Hermenia, afterwards called Reginoberg (Ratisbon).
14. Adalger or Adelger 49 1377-1328
Son of Ingram. German Amazons were again famous in his time under
Queens Lautpotis and Martpeis. They crossed through Asia Minor to
Lycia, but were defeated.
15. Larein 51 1328-1277
Son of Adalger. This is the Laertes of Trojan fame, mentioned by
the Roman historian Tacitus. During his rule an army set out from
Germany and went via Poland and Ruthenia to the Danube valley. Here it
was joined by Germans who had come to the area some 150 years earlier,
and the combined forces fell into Asia Minor under their leader Mader
and their queen Aloph. They passed through Phrygia and settled in
16. Ylsing or Ulsing 53 1277-1224
Son of Larein. This is the Trojan Ulysses of Tacitus. He is also
the Greek Odysseus who sailed out to the Atlantic and up to the Rhine.
Built Emmerick on the Main. During his reign the Germans under Galter
again invaded Asia Minor and settled on the banks of the river
Sangarius. Priam of Troy tried in vain to expel them, finally made a
treaty, and they later helped him against the Greeks.
17. Brenner or Breno 38 1224-1186
Son of Ylsing, in whose reign Prichs ruled the Germans on the
Black Sea and the women under queen Themyschyr conquered Bithynia,
Paphlagonia and Cappadocia.
18. Heccar (Hykar or Highter) 31 1186-1155
Son of Brenner. He is the famous Hector of the First Trojan War.
He was of great help to Priam. Teutschram, king of the Germans of
Transylvania and son-in-law of Priam also sent help.
19. Frank (Francus or Franco) 41 1155-1114
Son of Heccar. From him descended the German Franks or
Franconians. In his days Amar, queen of the German Amazons, burned the
temple in Ephesus.
20. Wolfheim Siclinger 58 1114-1056
Son of Frank. He sent another great migration of settlers from
Germany to the Black Sea.
21. Kels, Gal and Hillyr 50 1056-1006
Sons of Wolfheim. They divided their father's realm after his
death. Hillyr received Illyria, Gal received Gaul and Kels received
Germany. Hillyr had three daughters and six sons, all of whom settled
in the regions of the Balkans, Thrace and Greece.
22. Alber 60 1006-946
Son of Gal, ruled together with his six cousins. The center of his
government was in France.
23. Walther, Panno and Schard 62 946-884
Another son of Gal, ruled together with Panno and Schard, the
grandsons of Hillyr. From Walther Italy is called Walhen or Walschland.
Panno gave his name to Pannonia. From Schard came the Schardinger or
24. Main, ngel and Treibl 70 884-814
Sons of Walther, ruled jointly with Treibl, son of Panno. From
ngel are descended the Angles who lived in Thringen and Meissen.
25. Myela, Laber and Penno 100 814-714
They ruled jointly.
26. Venno and Helto 70 714-644
Ruled jointly. Helto invaded and settled in Italy, expelling the
27. Mader (Madyas) 55 644-589
Made extensive conquests. He built Milan. He led a German campaign
as far as Syria and Palestine. Of his sons, Balweis received Lombardy,
Sigweis Bavaria, and Brenner Thringen and Meissen.
28. Brenner II and Koenman 110 589-479
Brenner was the son of Mader. He was an "Engl"nder" and king of
the Schwaben. His wife was Th"m"rin (Tomyris), queen of the Getae,
Dacians and Scythians. Brenner sent her troops to help in the war
against Cyrus. He also defeated Darius who tried to invade the lower
Danube region. Together Brenner and Th"m"rin conquered much of Asia
Minor as far as Armenia. His nephew K"nman, son of Sigweis, was king of
the Bavarians. Brenner expelled K"nman and 300,000 Bavarians from
Bohemia and resettled that region with Schwaben, who then became known
as Markmannen. Some of the expelled Bavarians settled in Bavaria
proper, but by far the largest number of them crossed the Alps into
Italy, from where they drove out some of the Etruscans. After the death
of K"nman, the Bavarians of Italy were ruled by the kings Zeck, Ber
(who built Bern or Verona) and Breitmar.
29. Landein with his sons 80 479-399
Ant"r and R"g"r
30. Brenner III 38 399-361
Son of Breitmar, was king over both Schwaben and Bavarians, and
reigned over Germany and Italy. Under his leadership the Schwaben and
Bavarians sacked Rome. He had sons H"rkaz, Matsch"r, Guotfrid and
Schirm. His daughter Gueta was married to Philip of Macedon. Burning of
Rome (July 390) occurred in his 9th year.
31. Schirm 361-263
Son of Brenner III. He and his son Brenner IV ruled until 60 years
after death of Alexander -- although Brenner IV dies earlier. Brenner
led a massive German invasion into Greece, plundered Macedonia and the
oracle at Delphi, but was killed in 279 B.C.
32. Thessel 85 279-194
Son of Brenner IV, ruled jointly with his uncle Lauther and his
brother Euring. Lauther, with his brother Lebmner, broke into Asia
Minor with 20,000 men and settled in Cappadocia and Phrygia. Thessel's
sons Breitmar, Ernvest and Wirdm"r ruled over the Bavarians in Italy.
His wife, Teutscha, was queen of Istria. The Romans defeated the
Bavarians in Italy, killing Wirdm"r and 40,000 of his men.
33. Dieth I no length given 194-172
Son of Thessel, ruled jointly with his son Diethmer. Diethmer
invaded Palestine on behalf of Antiochus IV, took many Jews captive and
settled them in Germany near Regensburg. Soon afterwards Hannibal
attacked Italy and many of the Bavarians from Northern Italy joined him
against Rome. After Hannibal's defeat there followed a war between the
Romans and Bavarians in northern Italy which lasted 12 years. Finally,
weary of fighting, the Bavarians left Italy, where they had dwelt for
almost 400 years, and settled in Pannonia. Dieth was also driven from
Italy, whereupon Diethmer, in retaliation, persuaded Philip V of
Macedon to renew his hostilities with Rome. Entz and Olor, German kings
in Istria and Transylvania, aided Philip, but Rome won. In Asia Minor
Rome launched an attack against the German kings Orthjag, Gompelmer,
G"udhor, Orgsgund and Eposgnad. These retreated eastward over the
Halys, where they were defeated, sued for peace, and swore never to
raid foreign nations again. The Romans also defeated king Entz of
34. Baermund and Synpol 45 172-127
Ruled after the death of Dieth I and Diethmer.
35. Boiger, Kels and 27 127-100
They ruled jointly over the Germans and Bavarians in 127 B.C. They
gathered an army of 300,000 Saxons and Bavarians, intending to invade
and resettle Italy, from which they had been driven some 70 years
earlier. They were, however, defeated by Marius at Aquae Sextiae (102
B.C.) and Vercellae (101 B.C.). Boiger died, having reigned 27 years.
36. Scheirer 30 100-70
Mithridates tried to enlist his aid in the struggles against Rome.
37. Ernst (Arionistus) and Vocho 20 70-50
Ernst was king over Germany and France, his brother-in-law, Vocho,
over Bavaria, Austria and Hungary. Ernst invaded France, fought there
for 14 years, and settled it with 120,000 Germans. Next 33,000
Bavarians decided to go via France and Spain into Italy. They were
joined by the Helvetti. Julius Caesar defeated them, sent the Helvetii
back home, but allowed the Bavarians to settle in Burgundy. Caesar also
defeated king Ernst.
38. Pernpeist 10 50-40
He made a treaty with Persia against the Romans, made raids into
Greece and even attacked Apulia and Naples by sea. The Bavarians,
having been driven from Italy, lived near the Drave and Danube for 127
years. In the times of Ernst and Pernpeist they left their homes,
sailed down the Danube and settled near the Vistula, Dniester and
Dnieper, where they remained some 550 years. The name of the Bavarians
is not encountered again for some 500 years, till the time of Attila.
39. Cotz, Dieth II and circa 40-13
In 13 B.C. Augustus made an attack against the Germans on the
Danube. Later he settled 40,000 Westphalians, Hessians and Schwaben on
the west bank of the Rhine.
Virtual anarchy now began to reign among the German tribes. There
were anti-Roman and pro-Roman factions and these split whole tribes and
even families. The ruling families soon killed each other off in family
feuds and inter-tribal warfare.
The royal house that next dominated Germany came from the
Sicambrian Franks. Their history appears later in the "Compendium",
chapter XII A.
ABRAHAM IN EARLY EUROPEAN HISTORY
For centuries students have been taught that Europe was one of
late areas of the world to become civilized. Educational tradition
would have us believe that Egyptians were erecting mighty temples of
stone, had wide astronomical knowledge, knew how to write, thousands of
years before Western Europe came to the threshold of civilization.
While Egyptians and Babylonians were arrayed in gorgeous robes and
painted with cosmetics, historians would have Europe's forests sparcely
populated with naked white savages. Europe's dominant place in world
affairs is, we are told, a relatively new phenomenon.
Nothing could be further from the truth!
EUROPE'S EARLY HISTORY SUPPRESSED
European civilization -- and its history -- is as old as Egypt's.
But it has been suppressed. Not since the close of the seventeenth
century has it been allowed to be taught publicly.
It did not happen in a day. It took centuries of calculated
plotting and ridicule to wipe from the pages of history the record of
early Europe. Historians and theologians have conspired together to
label Europe's early history as "myth."
Their motive is plain. If theologians and historians had allowed
the early history of Europe to be taught in schools and universities,
they would have had to admit the authenticity and the authority of the
Bible. THAT they did not want to do.
Had they not expunged the early events of Europe every one today
would be reading of the journeys of Noah, Shem, Heber, Asshur and many
other Biblical heroes into Europe. Children would be reading in schools
today of the early settlement of Assyrians and Chaldeans in Western
Europe. They would know where the "Ten Lost Tribes" of the House of
All this has been purposely hidden. But it has not all been lost.
Scattered through the writings of scholars of the fifteenth, sixteenth
and seventeenth centuries are fragmentary records which unveil what
really happened in Europe. In museums and libraries, in state archives
are still to be found documents of hoary antiquity corroborating the
This chapter contains the account of one of those documents. It is
a history of the Danubian Valley -- the area of Austria, Hungary,
Bohemia, Bavaria and neighboring regions. The document is the
"Oesterreichische Chronik" -- the Austrian Chronicle. It has never
before been rendered into modern English. A number of copies of the
Chronicle are scattered throughout Europe. The last entry in the
Chronicle is of the year 1404.
ABRAHAM IN THE AUSTRIAN CHRONICLE
The Austrian Chronicle begins its consecutive history with a man
of princely birth -- none other than the patriarch Abraham! But what
has Abraham to do with the history of the Danubian Valley in Europe?
The most ancient Greek name for the Danube River was the River
Noe. Noe is the Greek form of the Hebrew Noah.
Noah was the patriarch of the whole human family following the
flood. His patriarchal authority passed on to Shem, who superseded his
older brother Japheth. In each succeeding generation the hereditary
right of the firstborn was passed on from father to son. Terah was
eighth in descent from Shem (Genesis 11:10-26), and the heir to Noah
and Shem. Terah had, according to the Biblical record, three sons. The
oldest, Haran, was born when Terah was 70 years old (Gen. 11:26). He
died before his father Terah did (Gen 11:28). "And Haran died in the
presence of his father Terah in the land of his nativity, in Ur of the
Chaldees." Why Haran died young will be made plain shortly from the
Replacing Haran as heir was Terah's second son, Abram (whose name
was later changed to Abraham).
In the year 1941 God called Abraham to forsake his kindred, his
country -- everything. "Now the Lord said unto Abram: 'Get thee out of
thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's house, unto
the land that I will show thee. And I will bless thee, and make thy
name great ...'" (Gen. 12:1-2).
Abram had to give up his hereditary privileges. Though he was a
"mighty prince" (Gen. 23:6), he willingly forsook his inherited rights.
"So Abram went, "declares verse 4.
Now consider the Austrian Chronicle. It begins with the birth of
Abram (he is called Abraham throughout the Chronicle) under the
Assyrian Count Sattan of Aligem (sect 41). (Several of the earliest
geographic names in the Chronicle are otherwise unknown from
contemporary records.) Abram "took to wife Susanna from the land of
Samam, the daughter of Terromant and his wife Sanyet."
Of this union we read in Scripture: "And Abraham gave all that he
had unto Isaac. But unto the sons of the concubines, that Abraham had,
Abraham gave gifts, and he sent them away from Isaac his son, while he
yet lived, eastward, unto the east country" -- Assyria (Gen. 25:5-6).
From the Austrian Chronicle we learn that "Abraham and Susanna had
a son Achaim." Then "Abraham of Temonaria and Count Sattan of
Aligemorum had war with each other, till Abraham was driven from the
land in poverty." It was in this war that Haran, Abram's older brother,
was slain. Abram was driven out of Count Sattan's realm and fled to the
Danube River Valley in 1945, according to the Chronicle. There he built
a home and settled until the death of Count Sattan.
It was now 1942 -- three years after Abram fled. Abram, according
to the Chronicle, took Achaim and Susanna and went to the land of
Judeisapta -- "the Jews' land" -- Palestine, according to the Bible.
(The later scribes who copied the Austrian Chronicle assumed it was the
Danube Valley because Jews were later settled there also.) From
Palestine Abraham sent away eastward to Assyria Susanna and Achaim (in
Isaac's second year). From there they journeyed to the Danubian
settlement Abram made years before. The previous chapter revealed that
the Danubian Valley was then under Assyrian hegemony.
The following sequence of landgraves and dukes is taken from the
standard text of the "Oesterreichische Chronik" -- the Austrian
Chronicle. Variations in spelling are at times included. The lengths of
reign and dates are in every case those of the Chronicle, which
correctly preserves the chronology beginning three years before the
call of Abram.
Rulers Lengths of Reign Dates
Abraham 30 1945-1915
Susanna, Abraham's 19 1915-1896
Palestine for Assyria, and
then the Danubian Valley.
Achaim, Abraham and 45 1896-1851
Susanna's son, married a
Hungarian countess named
Nannaym. They had four
children; one daughter,
Volim; another, Rawlint; a
son, Laptan; and a third
Raban -- Volim's husband, 45 1851-1806
a baron from Bohemia; they
have one son, Laptan. He
changed the name of his
duchy from Arratim to
Laptan -- Raban and 3 1806-1803
Volim's son, dies without
wife and heir.
Laptan, Achaim's son, 49 1803-1754
marries a countess from
Bohemia by name of Rama.
They added Steiermark to
their hereditary land.
Had two sons, Rimer and
Rymer, died without wife (6 months) (1754)
Nymer (Nynter), made the 52 1754-1702
margraviate to a dukedom,
called himself "Nynter, a
Heathen, duke of Sawricz."
Married a duchess called
Sinna. Only son is Lynal.
Lynal, called the land 32 1702-1670
Sannas, after his wife;
married a countess from
Hungary called Synna. They
had three children: a son,
Rantan; a daughter, Lengna;
and another son, Poyna.
Rantan, died without wife (3 months) (1670)
Poyna (Peynna, Pyna), 51 1670-1619
Lynal's youngest son,
married a duchess from
Bohemia, named Sanna. They
had four children: a daughter,
Sinna, and three sons, Pynan,
Lippan, and Rimman.
Pynan, died without wife and 1 1619-1618
Lippan, died without wife (14 days) (1618)
Rymman, died without wife (6 months) (1618)
Zawan (Zaban, Sawan), 61 1618-1557
Synna's husband, a Hungarian
duke. They have one son
Rattan (Nattan) marries a 67 1557-1490
duchess from Bohemia,
named Sanna. They had
two sons, Reymar and Noro.
Reymar (Rymmar) died (1 1/2 months) (1490)
without wife and heir.
Noro (Nero), marries a 43 1490-1447
wife from Carinthia,
named Lenna; they had
two children, a daughter,
Sanna; and a son, Aucz.
Aucz, changed the name 57 1447-1390
of the land from Sannas
to Pannaus, called him
self "Aucz, a Heathen."
Married Lenna, a duchess
from Bohemia. They had
one son, Nonas.
Nonas, marries Lenna, a 57 1390-1333
duchess from Lanazz. They
had a daughter, Sinna.
Tanton (Tonton), count 40 1333-1293
from Panticz, marries Sinna;
they had two sons, Tatan
and Remar. Remar died
before his father.
Tatan (Taton), marries 61 1293-1232
duchess from Bohemia,
named Synnan (Synna);
both later buried at the
Danube near Vienna. They
had two daughters, Sanna
and Lany (Lanus). Older
daughter died a year after
Mantan (Manthan, Mathan), 49 1232-1183
a duke from Bohemia,
marries Lany. They had a`
Manan, marries Hungarian 59 1183-1124
countess, Lenna. They had
a son Nanaym, and a daughter
Senna. Senna died before her
Nanaim (Nananaym, Nanaym) 38 1124-1086
marries Menna (Manna), a
Hungarian duchess. They
had two daughters, Lenna and
Zema (Sema), and a son Ramaim.
Lenna died unmarried. Ramaim
(Ramaym) died a year after
Mangais (Mangaizz, Mangrizz, 46 1086-1040
Magais), a duke from Hungary,
marries Zema. He changes
the name of the land from
Pannauz (Pannawz) to Tantamo
(Tantamus). He calls himself
"Mangais, a Heathen." They
had one son Manan.
Manan, marries a 55 1040-985
Bohemian duchess named
Sinna (Suma, Sanna, Samia).
They had one daughter,
Laptan, a Hungarian duke 67 985-918
marries Semna. They had
one son, Lanan.
Lanan, married Sanna (Senna), 51 918-867
a duchess from Bohemia. They
had two daughters, Sanna
and Senna, and a son, Maran.
Senna died before her father.
Maran, died without wife and (6 months) (867)
Manay, a duke from Bohemia, 54 867-813
marries Sanna. They had a
son, Tantan (Tanton), and
a daughter, Lemna (Lenna).
Lemna died unmarried.
Tantan, married Hungarian 57 813-756
duchess named Malan (Malon).
They had two sons, Zanan
(Sanan, Janan) and Peyman,
and a daughter, Peynin (Peyn,
Zanan, died without wife (3 months) (756)
Peyman, married Hungarian 48 756-708
duchess named Lanna. They
had three sons, Nanman
(spelled also Nannan,
Mannan, and Nanan), Gennan
After the death of Peyman and Lanna, who had both been heathen,
the "Oesterreichische Chronik" records that the whole country accepted
the Jewish faith! The next chapter reveals how and why it happened!
JEWS GAIN POWER IN DANUBE CIVILIZATION
How did this unique influence of the Jews in Eastern Europe begin?
Scholars and historians -- many of them Jews -- have puzzled over
the presence of the huge Jewish population in Eastern Europe. There is
no recorded evidence that they migrated from Babylon after the
Babylonian captivity. Nor are they the descendants from the destruction
of Jerusalem by Titus in A.D. 70.
Who, then, brought the Jews into Eastern Europe seven centuries
before the birth of Jesus.
The answer has been in the Bible all these years! It is found in
II Kings 18:13-16. "Now in the fourteenth year of king Hezekiah did
Sennacherib king of Assyria come up against all the fortified cities of
Judah, and took them. And Hezekiah king of Judah sent to the king of
Assyria to Lachish, saying: 'I have offended; return from me; that
which thou puttest on me will I bear.' And the king of Assyria
appointed unto Hezekiah king of Judah three hundred talents of silver
and thirty talents of gold. And Hezekiah gave him all the silver that
was found in the house of the Lord, and in the treasures of the king's
house. At that time did Hezekiah cut off the gold from the doors of the
temple of the Lord, and from the door-posts which Hezekiah king of
Judah had overlaid, and gave it to the king of Assyria." A parallel
account may be read in either II Chronicles 32 or Isaiah 36.
Notice the dates of this event -- the fourteenth year of Hezekiah
-- 711-710. Sennacherib was at this time associated with his father on
the throne of Assyria. A vigorous general, he captured all the
fortified cities of Judah except Jerusalem, enslaved the inhabitants.
Where he carried them had been unknown to historians. But the answer is
preserved for us in the "Austrian Chronicle". He carried them into
Eastern Europe along the Danube River. But how could an Assyrian king
of Nineveh plant tens of thousands of Jewish captives in Europe? --
because Central Europe was then part of the Assyrian Empire.
JEWISH KINGS FROM AUSTRIAN CHRONICLE
Rulers Lengths of Reign Dates
Gennan, middle son of Peyman, 4 708-704
became duke. He was overcome,
records the Austrian Chronicle,
by the Jews and was circumcised,
accepted Jewish marriage
customs, put away images and
acknowledged the Hebrew
faith. He called himself "Gennan,
a Jew." There were not yet any
Jewish noble, willing to give
their daughters in marriage to
him. So he died without wife
Nanman and Saptan, sons of 61 704-643
Peyman, split the country.
Nanman chose the lower and
Septan the upper part.
Nanman married a Hungarian
duchess called Meynin (Mennin).
Saptan became the Master over
his brother and over all the
land, also changed its name to
Mittanauz. He married a
Bohemian duchess called Salaim
(Salan, Salann, Salim), who
was a Jewess. They had two
sons, Tanton and Rippan.
Tanton died without wife before
Rippan, a Jew, married a 57 643-586
countess from Penenaw (Pennawe),
named Menna. They had one son,
Lantawz, and two daughters,
Pamyn and Rachaym. Lantawz and
Pamyn (Panym) died unmarried
before their father.
Salant, a Jew, a duke from 45 586-541
Hungary, married Rachaim.
They had one son, Piltan II
(Pilton, Pilkan) who died.
After both this son and
Salant had died, Rachaim
Laptan, a Jew from Bohemia, 15 541-526
married Rachaim. Changed
the name of the land from
Mittanauz (Mittenaus) to
Fannau (Fannawe). They
died without an heir.
At that time there ruled 40 526-486
a Jewish duke in Hungary,
called Almantan. He
usurped the power and
conquered the dukedom of
Fannaw. Almantan brought
with him his wife, a
Bohemian duchess, named
Schlammyn (Schalmmyn). She
was Jewish. They had two
sons, Rantanaiz and Halman
(Halbman). Halman became
duke of Hungary.
Rantanaiz (Rattans), in 57 486-429
his day the name of the
land was changed from
Fannaw to Aurata. He
called himself "Rattanaiz,
a Jew." Married Bohemian
duchess called Sawlin
(Sawlim). They had a son
who died without name, and
a daughter, Lenna.
Rettan, Hungarian duke, 45 429-384
marries Lenna. He changed
the name of the land from
Aurata to Fyla. They had
a son, Manton (Montan).
Flanton, married Sanna, 54 384-330
a duchess from Bavaria.
They had a son, Hegan and
a daughter, Semyn. Hegan
died unmarried before his
Rattan, a Hungarian duke, 39 330-291
marries Semyn. They had
one son, Attalon.
Attalon, married a Bohemian 57 291-234
duchess, Magalim. They had
three sons, Raban, Penyn
and Effra, and Semna, a
daughter. Semna died young.
Penyn also died without
wife and heir.
Raban (Rawan, Raban), (6 months) (234)
married a Bohemian duchess
called Sancta (Santta,
Santla). They died without
Effra, Attalon's youngest 49 234-185
son, married Hungarian
duchess, Samaym, who was
Jewish. They had one son, Naban.
Naban, married a Hungarian 52 185-133
duchess, a Jewess, Samanna.
They had a son, Rolan, and
a daughter, Signa who died
Rolan (Nolan), changed the 32 133-101
name of the land from Fyla
to Rarasma. Married a
Hungarian duchess, Sanna.
They had two daughters,
Eminna and Sanna. Eminna
Remar (Reinar, Reimar), 53 101- 48
a Bohemian duke, married
Sanna. They had one son,
Natan, married Hungarian 41 48- 7
duchess, Satym (Satyn).
They had two daughters,
Masym and Rachym.
Masym, a duchess. She 2 1/2 7- 5
died before marrying. Her
sister Rachym obtained the
Raban (Naban), a Bohemian 51 5 B.C. to 47 A.D.
duke, married Rachim. They
had two sons, Lanat (Lenat,
Lamer, Laniar), and Sannet
(Samet, Samer). Lanat died
Sannet, married a Hungarian 34 47- 81
duchess, Enna. They had a
son, Laban, and a daughter,
Racha (spelled also Ratha,
Rachaym, Rathaym). Laban
died before his father.
Saptan, duke from Bohemia 42 81-123
married Racha. They had
a son, Salamet (Salamer),
and a daughter, Semna
(Sanna, Senna). Salamet
died unmarried before his father.
Rolant, a Bohemian duke 52 123-175
marries Semna. They had a
son, Rattan, a daughter,
Amama II (Amania), and
another son, Jannat (Jannas,
Jannet, Jamer). Rattan
and Amama died without heir
before their father.
Jannat (Jannett Janner), 51 175-226
changed the name of his
inheritance from Rarasma
to Corrodancia. Married
a Bohemian duchess called
Samanna. They had a son,
Manton (Montan). With him
ended the predominance of the
Jewish faith, and the land
lapsed again to Heathenism.
Manton 45 226-271
In his time heathen from Hungary and other lands forced Manton to
become a heathen and to pray to images. "He called himself Manton, a
Heathen." He married a heathen duchess from Hungary, named Signa. They
had two sons, Natan (Mathan) and Reptan. Reptan died young and
END OF JEWISH PREDOMINANCE
The sudden influx of heathenism in the hitherto predominantly
Jewish patrimony was due to a mass migration from the east. This was
the period of the last famous Odin or Wodan -- king of the Saxons from
256-300. He led numerous tribes from Eastern Europe following the Roman
attack upon Dacia (the modern Romania). The story of Wodan will be made
plain in a succeeding chapter.
Natan, married a duchess 51 271-322
from Hungary named Salymna
(Salynna). They had two
sons, Salanata and Hemna
(Hemma, Henna, Honna). The
latter died without heir.
Salanata, married a 41 322-363
Bohemian duchess called
Alamynn. They had one
son, Rattan, a heathen.
Rattan, married a Bohemian 32 363-395
duchess, Sympna (Synna,
Symna). They had a son,
Fultan (Sultan, Fulkan,
Fullan) who died without
heir before his father.
Rolant, a heathen Hungarian 51 395-446
duke was established in
Corrodancia by the Romans.
He brought along his wife,
a Bohemian duchess called
Salympna (Salymna). They
had one son, Sattan.
Sattan, married a Hungarian 51 446-497
duchess, Samynna. From now
on the dukes in Corrodancia,
were Catholic nobles. Sattan
and Samynna died without an
The Romans established Amman, a noble count, in Corrodancia. He
secretly believed and practiced Catholicism.
Amman, changed the name 43 497-540
of the land from Corrodancia
to Avara. He brought along
his wife Helena, a secret
Christian. Later known as
"St. Amman" and "St. Helena,"
they converted much of the
population. When the Romans
found it out they slew Amman
and many of the people, but
not Helena. They had three
sons, Johanns, Albrecht, and
Dietreich. A11 three
became dukes of Avara and
changed the name to Osterland.
They split the land and Johanns
became the chief over his two
Johanns, married a 32 540-572
noble countess from Rome
called Anna. They had no
heir. Albrecht became
duke of Osterland, since
Dietreich died shortly
Albrecht, changed the 31 572-603
name of the land from Osterland
to Oesterreich -- now the
official name of Austria. He
married a duchess from
Bohemia, Katherin. They had
a son Eberhart, a daughter
Ann, and another son, Johanns.
Johanns and Anna died shortly
after their father.
Eberhart, married Osanna, 32 603-635
a duchess from Bavaria.
They had two sons, Jacob
and Albrecht. They both
died before father and
mother Thereafter the land
was turned into a margraviate.
Hainreich, duke from Bohemia 30 635-665
was given Austria by the
Roman emperor. Hainreich
(Henry), became Margrave of
Austria. He brought with
him his wife, a duchess from
Hungary named Ursula. They
had no heir.
Otto -- Hainreich granted 18 665-683
Austria to Otto of Hungary.
He styled himself "Otto,
by the grace of God, Margrave
of Austria and Duke of Hungary."
Married a duchess from Bohemia
called Elsbet. They had two
sons, Chunrat and Johans.
Johans died young.
Chunrat, made the 50 683-733
margraviate a dukedom. He
styled himself "Chunrat,
by the grace of God a
Roman king, always a
multiplier of the empire,
and duke of Austria. His
wife was Anna, a Hungarian
duchess. They had three
sons, Hainreich, Steffan
and Albrecht. They split
the land and Albrecht
Albrecht, married a 49 733-782
Bohemian duchess, Salme
(Salome). They had two
sons, Ludweig and Fridreich.
They divided the land.
Ludweig, was the higher 32 782-814
duke in Austria. Married
a duchess from Hungary
named Elena. They had a
son, Johannes and a
daughter, Dorothea, who
died before her father.
Johannes, married a duchess 49 814-863
from Bohemia called Anna.
They had one son, Hainreich.
Hainreich, married a 31 863-894
duchess from Hungary named
Ursula. They had three
sons, Johanns, Steffan
and Philipp. Steffan and
Philipp died young.
Johannes, married Margareta, 28 894-922
duchess from Bohemia. They
had two sons, Albrecht and
Ludweig. Albrecht died
unmarried prior to his father.
Ludweig, married a duchess 42 922-964
from Hungary called Elsbet.
They had one son, Albrecht.
Albrecht, married a duchess 28 964-992
from Bohemia, Osanna. They
had two sons, Ott and Hainreich.
Ott died unmarried prior to his
Albrecht was a contemporary of Leopold, duke of the rising House
of Babenberg. Leopold was appointed by Otto II of Germany as supreme
ruler of the Austrian mark.
Hainreich, or Henry, 28 992-1020
succeeded; married a
Hungarian duchess called
Margareta. They had two
sons, Peter and Johanns,
and a daughter, Elisabet
Peter and Johanns 1 1/2 1020-1021
Johanns was duke jointly with
Peter of Austria for a year
and a half, when he died
without wife and heir. Peter 3 1021-1024
succeeded as duke for three
years and also died without
heir. His dukedom passed
to the Babenbergs.
In 976 the chief authority in Austria had passed to the House of
Babenberg. The powerful rule of the Babenbergs -- and the
interrelationships of the royal families -- may be found in any
thorough English or German history of Austria. The Babenbergs became
extinct in 1246. Thereafter the realm passed into the hands of the
With this the history of early southeastern Europe, which began in
the days of Abraham, closes.
THE CONQUESTS OF ODIN AND DANISH HISTORY
Many a school boy has heard of Odin, the great Norse hero. But how
many realize that Odin was a real king of Denmark? That he founded the
kingdom of Denmark in the days of David, king of Israel? That he
visited Solomon's temple? of that Odin was the first Danish king to
cross the Atlantic -- as did Danish Vikings centuries later?
For centuries Danes revered the history of their nation. Not until
the atheistic educational philosophy of German schools permeated their
country did the Danes discard the early history of their nation. Modern
historians, imbued with the idea that myth was the only form in which
early man knew how to write, treat all Danish history as myth. They
have never investigated to see whether it were so. of course myth was
grafted in the Middle Ages on the early history of Denmark. That
tragedy befell all nations under the sway of religious superstition in
the Middle Ages.
But that does not prove that the essential core of early Danish
history is invalid. Today historians labor under the delusion that
history was artificially created after traditional mythology had long
been established. Not so. Recorded and traditional history around the
world was carefully preserved in palaces and royal libraries. Only
later did myth embrace history,
WHAT THE HISTORY OF DENMARK REVEALS
Now is the time to restore the lost history of Denmark. The most
accessible outline of Danish history is that found in Anderson's "Royal
Genealogies". Many other volumes contribute to the story, but only
Anderson's work correctly preserves in English the chronology of the
Danish written history properly begins with the first king to bear
rule over the Danish or Cymbric peninsula. That king was Danus I. In
Danish history he is also called Dan I. He was the first Odin or Votan
-- from the Hebrew "adonai" meaning "lord."
Denmark originally received its name from the tribe of the Danaan.
It passed to the king who took the name of the subjects over whom he
King Dan I commenced his reign in 1040. This was the year of the
break-up of the German realm. The division of German territory among
the three sons of Wolfheim -- Kells, Gall and Hiller -- left the
seafarers of the far northwest of Europe without leadership. To fill
the void the German and Hebrew inhabitants of Denmark called upon the
scion of the Trojan House to reign over them. That scion was Dan I. He
lived at the time in Thrace.
THE GENEALOGY OF DAN I
The present kings of Northwestern Europe and Great Britain are all
related to Dan I of Denmark. The "Saxon Chronicle" commences the line
of Dan I with the following two names: "Noah, Sem." Thereafter a long
break occurs in the genealogy -- similar to the Biblical statement:
"Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham" (Matthew l:l).
This gap in Odin's genealogy is partially filled in by the
Icelandic "Langfedgatal". After Sem, the "Langfedgatal" gives the
following genealogy on Odin's father's side:
"Saturnus of Krit
Priam, King of Troy
Minon or Memnon, who married Priam's daughter. Their son was Tror,
whom we call Thor, the father of Hloritha.
Seskef, or Sescef."
In Danish literature Seskef -- sometimes spelled Sceaf -- is a
title of Odin. It means a "sheaf" of grain. Odin claimed to be a kind
of savior, or a lord. He laid claim to being the sheaf that
symbolically represented the Messiah (Leviticus 23:9-14).
But why should Dan I, a king of Denmark, copy a ceremony
perpetuated by the law of Moses? Is there a connection between Odin and
The answer is found in who Saturnus of Krit, ancestor of Odin,
really was. In modern English the name would be Saturn of Crete. There
were many Saturns in antiquity, often confused with one another.
Usually the name was applied to a man who flees or who hides himself.
Saturn is a Latin word derived from a root meaning to flee into
hiding. The Greek term was Kronos. This particular Saturn of Crete was
so famous that the Phoenician historian Sanchoniathon spoke of him.
Fragments of his works have been preserved by Eusebius in "Preparation
of the Gospel", book i, ch. x. Here are his words: "For Kronus or
(Saturn), whom the Phoenicians call Israel ...." ("Corey's Ancient
Fragments of the Phoenician, Carthaginian, Babylonian, Egyptian and
other Authors", by E. Richmond Hodges, page 21.)
Israel was the name of Jacob. That would make Odin a son of Shem
and a son of Jacob. But why was Jacob called Saturn? Because Jacob
became famous for fleeing or hiding from his enemies. Jacob's mother
warned him of his brother Esau's wrath: "Now, therefore, my son,
hearken to my voice; and arise, flee thou to Laban my brother in Haran"
(Genesis 27:43). "And it was told Laban ... that Jacob was fled" --
this time back to Palestine. (Gen. 31:22).
But how is one to account for the title to Crete in Jacob's name?
Certainly Jacob did not have title to it prior to descending into
Egypt. The answer is, Jacob obtained it from Pharaoh in Egypt.
Here are the facts. Egypt was a vast Mediterranean power in the
days of Jacob. One of the areas early settled by Egyptians was the
island of Crete, an important naval gateway in the Mediterranean. From
Crete -- Caphtor in Hebrew -- came the Philistines (Jer. 47:4 and Amos
9:7). The Philistines descended from Mizraim, father of the Egyptians
(Gen. 10:13-14). Ruling over the Egyptians and Philistines in Crete and
the eastern Nile Delta was a little-known dynasty of Egyptian kings.
They are mentioned in the "Book of Sothis" by Sncellus. Manetho does
not include them among his dynasties.
The king of this dynasty, who was subject to the jurisdiction of
the great Pharaoh in Egypt, was Rameses (l744-1715). Because of
Joseph's service to the Egyptian government, the Pharaoh transferred
primary title to the Land from the line of Rameses to the line of
Israel -- and that included not only Goshen, but Crete!
And that is how Israel (Jacob) anciently obtained title to the
island of Crete.
The "Langfedgatal" genealogy of Odin of Denmark may therefore be
clarified as follows:
Saturnus of Krit -- Israel or Jacob (1856-1709)
Jupiter, son of Saturn of Krit -- Judah
Darius, descendant of Jupiter (Judah) -- is Dara or Darda (see the
family name in I Chronicles 2:4,6); Josephus calls him Dardanus
(1477-1412); he fled Italy and founded Troy (the Norse geneaology skips
the names of Tarah and Mahol between Judah and Darda)
Erichhonius -- Ericthonius (1412-1366), second king of Troy
Troes -- Tros (1366-1326), third king of Troy
Ilus -- Illus (1326-1277), fourth king of Troy
Lamedon -- Laomedon (1277-1233), fifth king of Troy
Priam -- Priamus (1233-1181), king of Troy during first Trojan
Eighth in descent from Priam was Seskef, who was Danus I or Odin
(Votan), first king of Denmark -- 1040-999. Odin was a Hebrew, of the
line of Judah, from whom the chief rulers were to come. "For Judah
prevailed above his brethren, and of him came the chief ruler" (I
Now consider over whom Odin ruled in Northwest Europe.
"HU THE MIGHTY"
King Danus' realm extended far beyond the reaches of the Danish
peninsula. The people over whom he ruled were a collection of tribes
which constituted the greatest sea power of the time -- the Pelasgians
or sea people. From the list of sea powers, commented on in Volume I of
the Compendium, it is proved that the Pelasgians were Hebrews and their
allies. Their chief center of habitation was Palestine. Denmark was one
of several overseas settlements. Israel gained power in 1057, shortly
before the break-up of Germany in Europe. They retained it until 972,
when Solomon's kingdom in Palestine was split. For the Israelites to
have obtained dominion of the sea in 1057 in the Mediterranean and
Atlantic presupposes that they already were living along the western
shores of Europe before that date.
When and how did the Children of Israel migrate to Western Europe?
The answer is found in Cymbric or Welsh history.
A fragmentary Welsh record, called the Welsh Triad, reads as
follows: "First was the race of the Cymry, who came with Hu Gadarn to
Ynys Prydain." Hu came from "the land of summer" -- a land located
somewhere in what later constituted the realm of Constantinople (the
capital of the eastern Roman Empire). He journeyed to Ynys Pridain --
the Welsh name of the Isle of Britain. This first major settlement
preceded the migration in 1149 of Brutus of Troy to Britain.
Who was Hu Gadarn? Gadarn is a Welsh word. It means the "Mighty."
Hu was a short form of the Old Celtic name Hesus ("Origines Celticae",
by Edwin Guest, vol. 2, p. 9). Hesus is the Celtic -- and also the
Spanish -- pronunciation of Jesus. Was there a famous "Jesus" who lived
in the balmy summerland of the eastern Mediterranean centuries before
the time of Jesus the Christ? Most certainly! It is found in Hebrews
4:8, "For if Jesus that is, Joshua) had given them rest, then would he
not afterward have spoken of another day."
Jesus was merely the Greek form of the Hebrew name Joshua. Hu or
Hesus the Mighty was Joshua the Mighty, the great general who led
Israel into Palestine. And the Welsh Triad records that in his later
years he also settled Israel peaceably in the British Isle. From there,
for trading purposes, they spread to the coasts of the continent which
were subject to the German Cymry -- the descendants of the German king
Cimbrus (1679-1635). That is how Israel in Denmark came to be known by
the tribal name of Cymry.
As time elapsed the peninsula of Denmark became a chief area of
trade and commerce. It is strategically located to dominate both North
and Baltic sea trade. So together with the original German tribes of
the Cymry and Dauciones were migrants from Britain. In 1040 the Hebrew
Cymry called for a descendant of Judah, a royal scion of the House of
Troy, to rule over them. Odin answered the call and led a migration out
of Thrace into Denmark and neighboring regions. The deeds of Odin upon
becoming king over the Cymry (sometimes spelled Cymbri) will be
included in a later section on the American Indian.
THE KINGS OF DENMARK
Below is the genealogical and historical line of Judah that
descended from Odin. Through intermarriage the line of Odin has
permeated throughout Western Europe. Small wonder that the lion of
Judah is the symbol on the coat of arms and shields of the royalty of
Kings of Denmark Lengths of Reign Dates
1. Danus I, or Odin 41 1040-999
first king of Denmark
2. Humblus, son of Odin 8 999-991
3. Lotherus, son of Odin 17 991-974
4. Boghius 5 974-969
5. Scioldus, son of Lotherus 80 969-889
6. Gram (or Gran) 31 889-858
Slain by Suibdagerus, a
king of Norway, in battle;
wives were Groa a Swede,
and Signe of Finland.
7. Suibdagerus 40 858-818
King of Denmark, Sweden,
and Norway, who, by force,
married Gran's daughter and
8. Guthormus, son of Queen Signe 14 832-818
Reigned 14 years contemporary
9. Hadingus, another son of 54 818-764
Signe and Gram
10. Frotho I, son of Hadingus 77 764-687
11. Haldanus I, son of Frotho 56 687-631
12. Rhoe, son of Haldanus 63 631-568
13. Helgo, son of Haldanus 34 628-594
Reigned contemporary with
14. Rolvo, son of Helgo by his 41 568-527
own daughter Ursa. Became
king after death of Rhoe;
was killed by Attile, king
of Sweden, who conquered
15. Hotherus, great-grandson 42 527-485
of Hadingus, son of king
Hotobrodus of Sweden.
King of Denmark and Sweden.
16. Roric Slyngeband, son of 49 485-436
17. Wigletus, son of Roric 48 436-388
18. Guitalchus 32 388-356
19. Vermundus, son of Wigletus 61 356-295
20. Uffe, son of Vermundus 30 295-265
21. Danus II, son of Uffe 37 265-228
22. Hugletus the Little, son 52 228-176
of Danus II
23. Frotho II, son of Hugletus 30 176-146
DENMARK ENTERS ROMAN HISTORY
24. Danus III, son of Frotho 69 146- 77
In his time the German
Cymbrians joined the
Teutons in a terrible war
against Rome in 113.
Italy would have been
conquered if the consul
Marius had not defeated
25. Fridlevus I, the Swift, 37 77- 40
son of Danus
26. Frotho III, the Pacific, 54 40- 15
son of Fridlevus ("A.D.")
King of Denmark, Sweden
INTERREGNUM for nearly 4 years 15- 19
27. Hiarnus, a poet 2 19- 21
28. Fridlevus II, son of Frotho 12 21- 33
29. Frotho IV, the Liberal, 46 33- 79
son of Fridlevus
30. Ingellus Wendemothius, 23 79-102
son of Frotho
31. Olaus I, son of Ingellus 10 102-112
32. Haraldus I, reigned 5 112-117
contemporary with brother
33. Frotho V, brother of 19 112-131
34. Haraldus II, son of 10 131-141
35. Haldanus II, son of 15 131-146
Reigned 10 years
brother, 5 years alone.
36. Unquinus, king of Gothland, 9 146-155
Haldanus in Denmark.
37. Sivaldus I, son of
Unquinus 22 155-177
38. Sigarus, son of Sivaldus 13 177-190
39. Sivaldus II, son of 11 190-201
INTERREGNUM -- Rule of 40 201-241
40. Haldanus III, married 20 241-261
41. Haraldus III, (Hilletand 66 261-327
or Hilderand), son of
Haldanus; died in Sweden
after a seven-year war,
during which time his
daughter Haditha governed
42. Olaus II, brother of 4 327-331
43. Osmund, son of Olaus 10 331-341
44. Sivardus I, son of 9 341-350
45. Buthlus, brother of 1 350-351
46. Jarmericus, son of 16 351-367
47. Broderus, son of 2 367-369
48. Sivaldus III, son of 9 370-379
49. Snio (or Sino), son of 22 379-401
The next seven kings lived mostly abroad. They succeeded each
other as father and son.
50. Roderic 10 401-411
51. Sueno I 55 411-467
52. Guitlachus 50 467-517
53. Haraldus IV 46 481-527
54. Eschyllus 16 527-543
55. Veremundus 78 543-621
56. Osmund II 75 621-696
The following kings
lived in Denmark.
57. Biorno 4 696-701
58. Baldrus, son of Biorno 6 701-707
59. Haraldus V, son of Baldrus 8 707-715
60. Gormo I, son of Haraldus 50 715-765
61. Gotricus or Godfrey or 45 765-810
invasions of England 787
62. Olaus III 1 810-811
Because Gotricus became
the great legislator of the
Danes, his reign is often
begun from the year 777 as
Gotricus (or Godfrey), 33 777-810
Olaus III or Olabus 2 810-812
63. Hemmingius or Hemmingus or 4 812-816
64. Sivard II 2 816-818
65. Ringo, contemporary with 2 816-818
66. Regner 13 818-831
67. Harald VI 3 818-821
68. Sivard III, the last 3 831-834
heathen king of Denmark.
CHRISTIANITY INTRODUCED ON THE THRONE
69. Eric I, the first king of 1 834-835
Denmark to adopt
During much of this and the preceding period Denmark was plagued
by joint reigns, disputed succession, and lesser kings who seized on
part of the realm. Whole tribes left the peninsula to settle
permanently in England. They were called Danes, but were, in fact, of
70. Eric II, called Barno, 24 835-859
71. Canute I, surnamed the 20 859-879
72. Frotho VI 1 879-880
73. Gormo II (or Guthran or 13 880-893
74. Harald VII, Parcus, or the 8 893-901
75. Gormo III or Guthram or 30 901-931
or Godrum or Gormund
76. Harald VIII, called Blaatand 48 931-979
77. Sueno II or Suen-Otto, 35 979-1014
called Forked Beard
78. Ericus, King of Sweden 7 988-995
became King of Denmark
in 988 for 7 years, till
slain by his own servants,
when Suen-Otto was
restored by Scottish
79. Canute II or King Knut 21 1014-1035
the Great, united
Scandinavia under his
realm, it fell apart
at his death. Became
king of England 1016.
From this date on any thorough work on Denmark will satisfactorily
present its history. With the death of Canute a period of 2074 years
ended since the founding of the monarchy.
SCOTLAND -- KEY TO HISTORY OF NEW WORLD
The Key to the history of the New World has been lost. Not a
single historian or archaeologist knows the true origin of American
Indian civilization. And no wonder! They have thrown away the keys to
that history. One of those keys will be found in Danish history. The
other -- and most important -- key in the checkered history of rugged
WHAT HISTORIANS CLAIM
The famous eight-volume "History of Scotland", by John Hill
Burton, begins the history of Scotland this way: "It is in the year 80
of the Christian era that the territory in later times known as
Scotland comes out of utter darkness, and is seen to join the current
of authentic history. In that year Julius Agricola brought Roman troops
This is a typical -- but mistaken -- view of Scottish history.
Historians have made an idol out of Roman records. What the Romans
either refused to preserve, or carelessly neglected to record, is all
too often treated with contempt by modern historians. Scotland was
never long under the Roman heel. The Romans were not particularly
interested in its rocky highlands. Consequently they did not occupy
themselves with recording the major events of the past that befell its
Today, numerous documents are available covering the history of
Scotland from very early times. These chronicles are usually disparaged
in historical circles -- or at most treated as quaint and curious
documents. But to restore the lost history of Scotland from them is
frowned on with disdain.
Yet in these records are the missing links which, until now, have
sundered the Old World from the New. It is time the true story of
Scotland were made known. Here, in outline form, are the major events
that make Scottish history.
FIRST MAJOR SETTLEMENT
The geographic location of Scotland is important in its history.
Scotland is the link between Scandinavia and Britain and Ireland. Its
shores provide control of the far reaches of the North Sea and the
ocean. Scotland was consequently invaded, peaceably and by frightful
devastation, several times in its history.
The first permanent settlement of Scotland, for which we have
recorded history, begins with the coming of Danus I of Denmark in 1040.
When the Cimbric tribes called upon an heir of the Trojan throne to
establish his domain in Denmark, Odin responded immediately.
Out of southeastern Europe he marched into Denmark. Coming with
him was a mixed tribe known as the Agathyrsi. Agathirsi was their name,
declares an old Scottish Chronicle. ("Controversial Issues in Scottish
History", by W. H. Gregg, p. 125.) Odin settled them in Scotland under
their leader Cruithne -- after whom they were called Cruithnians or
Cruithne. Herodotus, the Greek historian, traces the Agathyrsi to their
origin in the Scythian plains of what is now the southern Ukraine The
Agathyrsi were a mixed race. Various struggles led to a catastrophe
among the Agathyrsi who came with Odin. They found themselves without
As a consequence they sought wives among neighboring tribes. They
landed in Ireland at the time of the establishment of the Milesian
monarchy under Ghede the Herimon (1016-1002). Following a few
skirmishess an agreement was reached. The Milesians of Ireland agreed
to give wives to the Agathyrsi from their daughters on one condition:
that the Agathyrsi would pass on their inheritance through their
daughters, not their sons. This was to acknowledge that any royalty
which might follow derived kingship from their Milesian wives, not from
the Agathyrsi men.
On this condition the Agathyrsi departed again for Scotland.
LINE OF JUDAH IN SCOTLAND
The women who journeyed in that day to Scotland were Milesians --
of the family of Mileadh. In volume I of the Compendium the history of
the kingly line from Mileadh to the present throne in Great Britain was
given in its entirety. Its ancient connection with the throne of David,
in Judah, was made plain. But the genealogy of Mileadh was not
The line of Mileadh, in Irish records, properly begins with Easru
in Egypt. The name Easru is Old Irish for Ezra or Azariah.
Easru was a friend of Moses. One Irish tradition has him crossing
the Red Sea with the children of Israel. Another tradition has him
journeying, after the Exodus, to Scythia. Irish annalists became
confused by these two movements of Easru and his family. It never
occurred to them that he might have crossed the Red Sea with Moses, and
then, at a later time journeyed to Scythia.
No Irish records preserve the ancestry of Easru or Azariah. Many
myths were later created by Irish monks to account for this blank. It
seems not to have occurred to them that the Bible might record the
ancestry of Easru, ending at the Exodus.
The previous volume of the Compendium established the significant
fact that the symbol of the line of Easru and Mileadh was the Crimson
or Red Branch -- signifying the royal line Zarah, Judah's son (Genesis
38:30). Now open the Bible to the genealogy of Judah. "And the sons of
Zarah: Zimri, and Ethan, and Heman, and Calcol, and Dara .... And the
sons of Ethan: Azariah" (I Chronicles 2:6, 8).
Here is an Azariah, of the family of Judah -- and of Zarah, the
Red Branch. Azariah was of the same generation as Moses -- both were
great-great-grandsons of Jacob (compare with Exodus 6:16-20). Notice
also that Azariah's descendants did not enter Palestine. His genealogy
is not continued beyond the Exodus. That is significant.
Further, the name Azariah in Hebrew is often shortened to Ezra
(see any Biblical encyclopaedia). Its Old Irish form would be Easru. So
here we have an Azariah (or Ezra), of the same generation as Moses,
Living at the time of the Exodus, whose descendants did not settle in
Palestine, and who was of the Crimson Branch. At the same time Irish
history reveals an Easru -- Old Irish for Azariah or Ezra -- living in
Moses' day, crossing the Red Sea, but not settling in Palestine, whose
descendants in after generations used the symbol of the Crimson Branch!
Here is the line of Zarah -- Judah! Easru is Azariah, Judah's
In chart form (from the Bible and Stokvis' Manuel) the Milesian
princely line appears thus:
Azariah, who is Easru
Ghede the Herimon, now gave daughters of the royal family to the
Cruithne. From these noble women sprang a line of kings that finally
united with the Scots in the person of Kenneth Mac Alpin in 843.
In after ages the Cruithne came to be known, falsely, as Picts.
The true Picts were another people altogether -- an uncivilized people
who painted themselves. Because the Cruithne ruled over the Picts who
lived in the Scottish highlands, later writers called them both
"Picts." The wild, unsettled Picts later disappeared from Scotland.
Where? -- historians do not know. But Scottish history tells!
But first, to summarize the story of the half-Jewish kings who
descended from the Cruithnians and the Hebrew Milesian women.
EARLIEST HISTORY OF SCOTLAND
The complete king list -- and an accurate chronology of all the
kings of the Cruithne -- has come down to us in the "Pictish
Chronicle." The record begins with the first settlement of the
Agathyrsi in 1040. That is the year they were planted in Northwest
Europe by Odin of Denmark, who led them out of their ancient homeland
The "Pictish Chronicle" begins with the name of Cruithne and seven
sons, who divided the Scottish realm between them. The entire period
from the first migration in 1040 to the death of Cruithne and his sons
was 100 years. Thereafter the royal line was inherited from the
mother's side, not the father's, in accordance with the original
agreement with the Milesians.
The following chart is taken from the "Pictish Chronicle."
King's Names Lengths of Reign Dates
Cruidne (or Cruithne), 100 1040- 940
son of Cinge (or Kinne),
father of the Agathyrsi
dwelling in Scotland.
The seven sons of Cruithne:
Ce, that is, Cecircum 15
The entire period of Cruithne and his seven sons is contained in
the 100 years assigned to Cruithne. None of the sons' reigns can be
dated. The kingship after 940 was passed on to the following:
Gedeolgudach 80 940-860
Denbacan 100 860-760
Finnechta (Olfinecta) 60 760-700
Guididgaedbrecach 50 700-650
Gestgurtich 40 650-610
Wurgest 30 610-580
Brudebout 48 580-532
"From Brudebout descended 30 kings of the name of Brude, who
reigned during 150 years in Ireland and in Albany," records the
Chronicle. Albany was the seat of authority in Scotland. The following
names indicate that the realm was divided into numerous principalities
-- probably 15 -- over each of which two generations of kinglets
Thirty kings by name of Brude 150 532-382
Brude Gest Brude Uleo
Brude Urgest Brude Gant
Brude Point Brude Urgant
Brude Urpoint Brude Gnith
Brude Leo Brude Urgnith
Brude Feth Brude Gart
Brude Urfeichir Brude Urgart
Brude Cal Brude Clnd
Brude Urcal Brude Urclnd
Brude Cint Brude Uip
Brude Urcint Brude Uruip
Brude Feth Brude Grith
Brude Urfeth Brude Urgrith
Brude Ru Brude Muin
Brude Ero Brude Urmuin
Gilgidi 101 382-281
Tharan 100 281-181
Morleo 15 181-166
Deocilunan 40 166-126
Cimoiod, son of Arcois 7 126-119
Deord 50 119- 69
Bliciblitherth 5 69- 64
Dectoteric, brother of Diu 40 64- 24
Usconbuts 30 24 B.C.- 7 A.D.
Carvorst 40 7- 47
Deoartavois 20 47- 67
Uist 50 67-117
Ru 100 117-217
Gartnaithboc 4 217-221
Vere 9 221-230
Breth, son of Buthut 7 230-237
Vipoignamet 30 237-267
Canutulachma 4 267-271
Wradech Vechla 2 271-273
Garnaichdi Uber 60 273-333
Talore, son of Achivir -- 75 333-408
(Nectanus, a contemporary
Pictish king was slain in
Drust, son of Erp or Irb 45 408-453
Though the "Pictish Chronicle" continues the history of the
Cruithne without interruption, it is important that the list be stopped
here to discover who Drust, the son of Erp, was.
EARLY LINE OF SCOTTISH KINGS
Erp is the Pictish name for the Scottish Erc. Who was this Erc?
Late Scottish historians confused this Erp or Erc with Erc the
father of Fearghus. Fearghus mac Erc reigned 513-529. This was about a
century after Drust mac Erp (or Erc). The two Ercs are not the same
person. This is clearly proved by all early Scottish historians. "In
two particulars at least, none of the early writers have disagreed:
that in the year 503 an invasion of Caledonia took place under the
leadership of Fergus mac Erc, and that he and his followers had come to
stay" ("Controversial Issues in Scottish History", Gregg, page 35).
Then who was the other Erc whose son, a century earlier, returned
to rule over the Picts? The answer is found in the early history of the
Scots who migrated from Scythia in the year 331-330.
In 331 Alexander the Great overthrew the Persian realm. Many
nations who had been held in virtual slavery gained their freedom. One
of these people was the House of Israel. Israel was invaded in 721 by
Shalmaneser of Assyria. After a three-year siege her people were taken
into captivity. Ezekiel, over a century later was given a vision in
which he saw that the House of Israel would not be released from their
enslavement until 390 years had elapsed from the time of the siege of
Samaria (Ezekiel 4:3-5). It was precisely 390 years from 721, when the
siege against Samaria began, to 331, the date of the final overthrow of
Persia and the deliverance out of captivity of the Hebrews. Some of
them immediately commenced a migration to the land settled long before
by their brethren. In the year 331-330 they journeyed out of Scythia to
Scotland -- the word Scotland originally meant the land of the Scyths.
In Scotland they sent to Ireland for a Scythian-Mileslan prince, of the
line of Mileadh, to rule over them. A prince was dispatched, together
with a small army. His name was Fergus, the son of Ferquhard. It was
his family from which Erp or Erc, the father of Drust, king of the
"Picts,'' sprang. Before returning to complete the line of "Pictish"
kings, we shall present a summary of the earliest kings to rule over
the Scots in Scotland. (It should be remembered that Scotland and
Pictland were but two of several early divisions of that land now known
This material is taken from Boethus and Buchanan. The correct
outline is that preserved in Anderson's "Royal Genealogies". Buchanan
mistakenly shortens the total of the dynasty 16 years. But Roman
history confirms the longer form preserved by Anderson on page 753.
First Kings of the Lengths of Reign Dates
1. Fergus 25 330-305
He died in shipwreck off
the coast of Ireland,
where he went to quell
2. Feritharis 15 305-290
Brother of Fergus succeeds,
since Fergus' sons are too
3. Mainus 29 290-261
Fergus' younger son chosen
king, the older, Ferlegus,
being condemned for
conspiring in his uncle's
4. Dornadilla 28 261-233
A son of Mainus
5. Nothatus 20 233-213
Dornadilla's brother; his
own son too young to succeed
to the throne. A very
cruel and despotic ruler,
he was slain.
6. Reuther 26 213-187
Dornadilla's son. Dowal,
the murderer of Nothatus,
exercised great influence
over the still young Reuther.
7. Reutha 17 187-170
Son of Nothatus, cousin
of Reuther. Reuther's
brother rules for his
nephew, who is only ten
years old. Reutha
resigned the government
in favour of Thereus his
8. Thereus 12 170-158
Reuther's son. A cruel
and unwise tyrant, driven
into exile in his twelfth
year, Conan elected viceroy.
9. Josina 24 158-134
Thereus' brother. He
greatly honored physicians,
as he had been educated
10. Finnan 30 134-104
Josina's son. Established
that kings should not
decide on great matters
without authority of the
great council. Ne was
devoted to Druidical
11. Durstus 9 104- 95
Finnan's son. A vile and
debauched ruler. Pretending
to reform his life, he
invited the nobles and had
them slain. He was slain
in the ensuing battle.
12. Evenus 19 95- 76
Paternal cousin to Durstus.
Exacted oath of
allegiance from his subjects.
13. Gillus 3 76- 73
A crafty tyrant, slain by
Cadwal, his viceroy, in
14. Evenus II 17 73- 56
Son of Doval; grandson
15. Ederus 48 56- 8
Son of Dochamus, Durstus'
16. Evenus III 7 8- 1
A wicked and licentious
king; the son of Ederus.
He was put in prison by
the nobles and there
murdered by a fellow
17. Metellanus 29 "1 B.C."- 29 "A.D."
Son of Ederus' brother.
18. Caractacus 20 29- 49
Son of Cadallanus and of
Eropeia, Metellanus' sister.
19. Corbred I 18 49- 67
20. Dardanus 4 67- 71
Metellanus' nephew. A
cruel and licentious ruler,
he was captured in battle
21. Corbred II. 35 71-106
Corbred's son. After many
battles with the Romans,
he died at peace.
22. Luctacus 3 106-109
A licentious prince, son
of Corbred II. He was
slain by his nobles.
23. Mogaldus (Mogallus) 36 109-145
Grandson of Galdus and
maternal nephew of
Lactacus, son of the
sister of Corbred II.
Started his reign well
but ended it in the ways
of his predecessor. Was
slain by the nobles.
24. Conarus 14 145-159
Mogaldus' son. He was a
partner in the conspiracy
against his father. He
himself was a lecherous
tyrant, was put in
prison after only 2 years.
Argadus became governor;
Conarus was finally slain
in prison in 159.
25. Ethodius 33 159-192
Mogaldus' sister's son.
He was murdered for
personal reasons by an
26. Satrael 4 192-196
Ethodlus' brother, the son
was not yet mature enough.
This man murdered the
nobles and friends of
Ethodius, so he could do
away with the sons, in
order to keep the reign
in his family. Was finally
strangled by his own
27. Donald I. 21 196-217
Another brother of
Ethodius. The first
"Christian king" of
Scotland. First to coin
gold and silver money in
28. Ethodius II. 21 217-238
Son of Ethodius, an
intellectually weak and
base-minded man. Directed
by his nobles, slain by own
29. Athirco 12 238-250
Son of Ethodius. Began
his reign decently, but
degenerated and committed
suicide when pursued by
his nobles. Athirco's
brother, Dorus, flees
from the noble Nathalocus
with the three sons of
30. Nathalocau 12 250-262
A son of Athirco's brother,
he usurped the kingdom; was
a cruel tyrant and was slain
by the nobles.
31. Findochus 11 262-273
A son of Athirco. A
good ruler, he was slain
by his own brother at the
instigation of Donald the
32. Donald II. 1 273-274
Findochus' brother. In
battle Donald is wounded
and dies shortly after.
33. Donald III 12 274-286
Donald the Islander
usurped the kingship
without any right to it,
and ruled very cruelly.
He was finally slain by
34. Crathilinthus 24 286-310
The son of Findochus, who
was hidden for years.
After a long series of
battles with the wild
Picts, and after
purging the land of
the idolatrous superstition
of the Druids and
enforcing Christianity, he died.
35. Fincormach 47 310-357
A just ruler.
36. Romachus 3 357-360
Son of oldest brother of
the kingdom by force from
the two sons of two other
brothers of Crathilinthus.
Defeated incursions of the
wild Picts. His murder
ended his evil reign.
37. Angusianus 1 360-361
Son of a brother of
was slain in battle with the
Picts' king Nectanus.
38. Fethelmachus 3 361-364
Son of the third brother
of Crathilinthus, Devastating
the forces of the Picts in
battle, they sent assassins
who murdered the king.
39. Eugenius I (Evenus) 12 364-376
Fincormach's son. He was killed in battle against the Romans and
their Pictish allies. The Scottish kingdom was obliterated. The dead
king's brother, with his son Erc, and his grandson, fled to Denmark
where he was received by Sivaldus III. The Scottish population
scattered throughout Scandanavia.
The Romans soon turned on the Cruithne -- who were still dwelling
in Pictland along with the wild Picts. The Cruithne were miserably
oppressed. After three decades they came to an agreement with the Scots
and promised to restore the Scots to the throne if they would deliver
them from oppression. The son of Erc or Erp returned in 408 at the head
of a Scottish army, delivered the Cruithne and restored the throne.
This son of Erc or Erp was not Ferghus, as later traditions assumed,
but Drust, who became the new king of the Cruithne or Picts. Drust was
famous in poetry for having fought 100 battles and lived 100 years. As
he ended his reign in 453, he was born 353. He was therefore only 23
years old at the time of the flight of his grandfather and father.
Before continuing the remarkable history of the wild Picts which
culminated in 503 in Scotland, we should continue with the line of
Scottish kings who now sat on the throne over the Cruithne (or the
KINGS OF CRUITHNE CONTINUED
Kings of the Cruithne Lengths of Reign Dates
(Drust, son of Erp or Erc 45 408-453)
Talore, son of Aniel 4 453-457
Necton Morbet, son of Erp 25 457-482
Drest Gurthinmoth 30 482-512
Galanau Etelich 12 512-524
Dadrest 1 524-525
Drest, son of Gyrom 1 525-526
Drest, son of Udrost, reigned 5 526-531
jointly with Drest, son of Gyrom
Drest, son of Gyrom, 5 531-536
continues to reign alone
Gartnach, son of Gyrom 7 536-543
Cealtraim, son of Gyrom 1 543-544
Talorg, son of Muircholaich 11 544-555
Drest, son of Munait 1 555-556
Galam, with Aleth 1 556-557
Galam, with Brideo 1 557-558
Bride, son of Mailcon 30 558-588
Gartnaich, son of Domelch 11 588-599
Nectan 20 599-619
Cineoch, son of Luthrn 19 619-638
Garnard, son of Wid 4 638-642
Bridei, son of Wid 5 642-647
Talore, brother of the two 12 647-659
Talorcan, son of Enfret 4 659-663
Gartnait, son of Donnel 6 663-669
Drest, brother of Gartnait 7 669-676
Bridei, son of Bill 21 676-697
Taran, son of Entisidich 4 697-701
Bredei, son of Derili 11 701-712
Necton, or Naitan, son of Derili 15 712-727
Drest and Alpin reigned together 5 727-732
Onnust, or Oengus, son of Urgust, 31 732-763
Bredei, son of Uiurgust 2 763-765
Kinoid, or Kinoth son of Wirdech 12 765-777
Elpin, or Alpin son of Wroid 3 777-780
Drest, or Durst son of Talorgan 4 780-784
Talargan, son of Onnust 2 784-786
Canaul, son of Tarla 5 786-791
Castantin, or Constantine, son 30 791-821
of Urguist, or Fergus
Unnust, or Hungus, son of Urguist 12 821-833
Drest, son of Constantine, and 3 833-836
Taloran, son of Utholl, reigned
Uwen, or Eogan, son of 3 836-839
Wrad, son of Bargoit 3 839-842
Bred Brude 3 842-845
Keneth MacAlpin, first king 16 843-859
of all Scotland, united line
of Cruithne (or "Picts")
with the Milesian Scottish
line of Ferghus mac Erc.
This completes the history of the Picts who descended from the
intermarriage of the Cruithne and the Judaic Milesian royal house. From
the reign of Kenneth MacAlpin the history of the throne of David has
already been presented in volume I.
But what befell those wild, tribal Picts who gave their name to
the Cruithne -- and who painted themselves? Remnants of them continued
to be referred to as late as the seventeenth century. Most of the
population, however, suddenly disappeared in 503 upon the coming of the
Milesian Scots out of Ireland under the leadership of Fearghus mac Erc.
Those wild Picts were the people who left the many strange and
intriguing remains in the Northern Isles of Britain -- the mounds, the
flint knives, the stonehewn tombs, the carvings. The next chapter
explains the link between Scotland and the New World.
THEY CROSSED THE ATLANTIC
The origin of the American Indian has puzzled Europeans from the
day Columbus' sailors set foot on the Caribbean isle. Yet, just four
centuries earlier, the New World was common knowledge to the educated
in North Europe and the Iberian Peninsula. Its natives were even
embracing the faith of the Roman Church, which had appointed an
Icelander of noble birth as bishop over Iceland, Greenland and the
lands of the New World! How did these facts all become lost?
THE LITTLE ICE AGE
One is so accustomed to read of "Ice Ages" as events of the remote
past, that it hardly occurs to the mind that thirteenth century
Europeans witnessed a veritable Little Ice Age that completely severed
communications between Europe and the New World. The Baltic froze over.
Vikings ceased to traverse the inhospitable Atlantic. In the New World
the Land of the White Man -- Hvitramanna Land in Icelandic literature
-- lost contact with Europe. Centuries later remnants of their
population were found among the natives which had early traversed the
Atlantic with them.
This chapter unfolds what really happened in Western Europe, and
especially the British Isles and Denmark, from the days of Solomon to
long after the fall of the Roman Empire. It will explain the astounding
chronological connection between the rise of New World civilization and
the sudden flight of tribes out of Northwest Europe.
WHITES DID NOT BECOME INDIANS
First, let us immediately banish a myth. White Europeans did not
become Indians by merely settling in the New World and becoming lost!
The American Indians are not the "Lost Tribes of Israel," or Egyptians.
The American Indian looks as he does because his ancestors appeared
that way before they traversed the waters of the Atlantic.
It may come as a surprise to learn it, but Europe and the
Mediterranean world was early -- and comparatively late -- inhabited by
"Red Men." Everyone has heard of the famous Phoenician sailors of the
ancient Mediterranean world. They are known to have traveled far out
into the Atlantic and to Northwestern Europe. The Greeks called them
Phoenicians because that is what they were -- "Red Men." The word
"Phoenician" is derived from the Greek word for reddish dye. The
ancient Egyptians painted the Phoenicians on their walled tombs and on
papyri. Their skin color? Reddish. The Egyptians painted other peoples
of Palestine white and black. They recognized three races of men living
in Palestine in early ages.
Julius Firmicus, an early writer, stated that "in Ethiopia all are
born black; in Germany, white; and in Thrace, red." Thrace was north of
Greece and originally populated by the children of Tiras, son of
Japheth (Gen. 10:2). It was from Thrace that Odin led the Agathyrsi and
other tribes to Northwestern Europe when he founded the Danish kingdom.
Many of the warriors employed by the early princes of western
Europe were fierce, of swarthy skin, naked and often tatooed and
painted. Strabo, the Roman geographer, wrote that areas of Ireland and
Britain were inhabited "by men entirely wild." Jerome, writing in one
of his letters in the fifth century, characterizes some of them as
cannibals: "When they hunted the woods for prey, it is said they
attacked the shepherd, rather than his flock; and that they curiously
selected the most delicate and brawny parts, both of males and females,
for their horrid repast."
In the eighteenth century, Martin, in his volume "Western Islands
of Scotland", remarked that the complexion of the natives of the isle
of Skye was "for the most part black;" and the natives of Jura were
"generally black of complexion," and of Arran, "generally brown, and
some of a black complexion." The inhabitants of the Isle Gigay were
"fair or brown in complexion." The American Indian -- commonly called
the Red Man -- varies from copper brown to almost black, and, of
course, almost white in some tribes.
And the famous literary companions Johnson and Boswell several
times took notice of the swarthy color of some of the natives in the
north and west of Scotland (Croker's "Boswell", 1848, pp. 309-310, 316,
352). "There was great diversity in the faces of the circle around us,"
wrote Boswell; "some were as black and wild in their appearance as any
American savages whatever." "Our boatmen were rude singers, and seemed
so like wild Indians, that a very little imagination was necessary to
give one an impression of being upon an American river."
A writer at the beginning of the nineteenth century characterized
the people of Harris: "In general the natives are of small stature ....
the cheek bones are rather prominent. The complexion is of all tints.
Many individuals are as dark as mulattoes, while others are nearly as
fair as Danes" ("Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal", No. vii, pp.
In "Pennant's Second Tour", 1772, is a line drawing of the wigwams
of the half-breed natives of the Scottish Island of Jura. Here are
natives, like American Indians, living in the remote islands of Europe,
whose last remnants died out as late as the beginning of the nineteenth
AMERICAN INDIAN TRADITION
The common idea that American Indians had no means of preserving
their history is a fiction based on the assumption that all Indians
were on the same level of culture. Wild, rude tribes there were. But
civilized nations existed too. They carefully preserved, among other
things, the history of their journeys, and the duration of their
habitation in the New World. When the Spanish conquistadors arrived in
the New World they were amazed to find the Maya and Aztecs using bark
paper to preserve history and daily records. It was obtained from the
FICUS, a tree related to the mulberry. Bark was peeled off, beaten with
a rubber mallet, and folded into sheets to make books. In Moctezuma's
palace Bernal Diaz followed an "accountant" who showed him "all the
revenue that was brought ... (and recorded) in his books which were
made of paper which they call "amatl", and he had a great house full of
these books" (pages 184-185 of "The Ancient Sun Kingdoms of the
Americas", by von Hagen). Only a few escaped the book burning of the
Spanish zealots, who sought to wipe out all vestiges of the previous
culture and the lineage of their royal houses.
Some rare codices have been preserved, however. One is the "Popol
Vuh", a sacred book of the ancient Quiche Maya. In it are recorded the
migrations and wanderings of their ancestors. It traces their origin
eastward across the Atlantic Ocean to the Old World. Other Indians had
similar origins of having to cross a great body of water from the
northeast to reach their present land. (Later migrations, once they had
arrived from the east, could take any direction.)
The writer of the Popul Vuh declared: "They also multiplied there
in the East .... All lived together, they existed in great numbers and
walked there in the East .... There they were then, in great numbers,
the black man and the white man, many of many classes, men of many
tongues .... The speech of all was the same. They did not invoke wood
nor stone, and they remembered the word of the Creator and the Maker
The Maya record continues: "... they came from the East ... they left
there, from that great distance .... they crossed the sea" (pp. 181,
183). When they sought to establish their kingdom "they decided to go
to the East .... It had been a long time since their fathers had died
East, there whence came our fathers.' Certainly they crossed the sea
when they came there to the East, when they went to receive the
investiture of the kingdom" (pp. 206-207).
To what line of great kings in the east were these Quiche Maya
journeying? To the successors of the great ruler who conducted them,
about 1000 B.C., to the Usumacinta River in Mexico.
The Mayas claim that their kingdom was founded by a great eastern
ruler named Votan or Oden or Dan by various tribes. He was a white man
who came by sea from the east and settled them in their new land. The
time of their migration, according to Ordonez, was ten centuries before
the present era. This Votan -- who was also worshipped as a god -- was
famous for having himself journeyed to a land where a great temple was
Do we have a king in Europe, living at the time Solomon's temple
was being built (around 1000 B.C.), who had dominion over the seas, who
was worshipped as a god, and whose name sounded like Votan? Indeed --
Woden or Odin, king of Denmark from 1040-999. He was worshipped later
as a great god. Scandinavian literature is replete with accounts of his
distant journeys which took him away from his homeland for many months,
Just as king Odin or Danus gave his name to Denmark -- Danmark --
so Odin gave his name to the "forest of Dan" in the land of the Quiche
Indians. (See pages 549 and 163 of volume V, "Native Races of the
Pacific States", by Hubert H. Bancroft.) "Dan ... founded a monarchy on
the Guatemalan plateau" (Bancroft, vol. I, p. 789). His capital, built
for the Indians and their white suzerains, was named Amag-Dan.
Here we have the records of Danish kings, as early as 1000 years
before the birth of Christ, sailing to the New World and planting
colonies of Red Men from Europe in the Yucatan and Guatemalan
highlands. Is it any wonder that it was the Danes, of all nations of
Europe, who continued to communicate with the New World in the days of
Eric the Red? It was the king of Denmark who ruled over Iceland in the
days of Christopher Columbus. Before Columbus awakened the sleepy
Mediterranean world by his important journey across the Atlantic, he
first sailed to Iceland where he obtained information for his fateful
And is it not significant that it was an Icelandic nobleman, Eric
Gnupson, who was consecrated by Pope Pascal II as Bishop of Greenland
and the neighboring regions ("regionumque finitimarum") in 1112? (See
"Conquest by Man", Paul Herrmann, p. 287.)
EARLY TIME OF MIGRATION
Tradition universally assigns white leadership to every major
recorded historic migration of the American Indian from far to the
northeast. The later history of Mexico commences with the establishment
of a monarchy by the Toltecs of Mexico. The Toltecs were of white
descent. They led and ruled over the Indians and spoke their languages.
Charnay wrote in the "North American Review", October 1881, "Physically
Veytia describes the Toltec as a man of tall stature, white, and
bearded." A carved head of a "noble Aztec," on display in the National
Museum, may be seen on plate 40 in George C. Vaillant's "Aztecs of
Mexico". The noble Aztec was not an Indian at all, but a Norseman!
Little wonder that wherever the Spanish journeyed they found the ruling
classes much lighter than the people over whom they ruled. On occasion
the conquistadors thought their women as fair or fairer than their
"The Annals of the Cakchiquels -- Lords of Totonicapan" contains
direct reference to the racial descent of the nobles who led and
governed the natives to the New World.
"These, then, were the three nations of the Quiches, and they came
from where the sun rises, descendants of Israel, of the same language
and the same customs .... When they arrived at the edge of the sea,
Balam-qitze (a native title for one in a religious office) touched it
with his staff and at once a path opened, which then closed up again,
for thus the great God wished it to be done, because they were the sons
of Abraham and Jacob. So it was that those three nations (the "mixed
multitude" of Exodus 12:38) passed through, and with them thirteen
others called Vukamag" -- meaning the 13 tribes. Israel had altogether
13 tribes including Levi.
"We have written that which by tradition our ancestors told us,
who came from the other part of the sea, who came from Civan-Tulan,
bordering on Babylonia" page 170. Page 169 says they ".... came from
the other part of the ocean, from where the sun rises." (Translated by
Delia Goetz; published by University of Oklahoma Press, 1953.)
Was the mysterious Civan-Tulan -- meaning in Indian dialects a
place of caves or ravines -- the region of Petra, where Moses led the
Children of Israel? Petra is famous for its caves. Canaanite Hivites,
mixed with Egyptian stock, dwelt at Petra, or Mt. Seir, at the time of
the Exodus (Genesis 36:2, 20, 24). They lived at peace with the
This settlement of Hivites was a region dominated by Midian. A
high priest who visited the land of Midian and Moab in Moses' day was
named Balaam -- almost the exact spelling in the Quiche-Maya title
Balam used for priests!
The people led by Odin or Votan across the Atlantic to the New
World were not exclusively the sons of Tiras from Thrace; some tribes
were called Chivim, reports Ordonez the early Spanish writer. It is the
very Hebrew spelling used for the English word Hivites, some of whom
once lived in Mt. Seir, the land of caves, near Babylonia! So the
Mexican Indians were a mixed people.
CHRONOLOGY OF MEXICO
No continuous history of the Quiche-Maya civilization is extant.
We have now to turn to the Valley of Mexico for direct and surprising
connection with the movement of events in Scotland where dwelt the
Picts and the Maiatai (Greek for Maia folk).
From Scottish history, covered in the previous chapter and in the
first volume of the Compendium, it can be established that major
migrations occurred in the years 376 -- when the Scots and allies were
driven out and the Picts miserably oppressed -- and in 503 -- when the
Scots from Ireland drove out most of the remaining wild Picts or
painted men. Where did these folk flee to? Can we establish a direct
connection between these events in Pictland with the history of
migration to the Valley of Mexico of the Toltecs and others in the New
Indeed we can.
The nation of the Scots was utterly driven out by the Romans in
the year 376. The Cruithne and Picts, who remained in the land as Roman
allies, were soon miserably oppressed. Rebellion broke out. The Romans
dealt severely with the fleeing rebels. The Cruithne and Picts besought
and obtained Scottish help to drive out the Romans and their British
Now compare this with the migration of the Toltecs and their white
chieftains to Mexico. The historian of the Toltecs was Ixtlilxochitl.
He reports several migrations over the centuries. But the one he takes
special note of -- for its chronological import -- commenced in 387.
(See Bancroft's "Native Races of the Pacific States", Vol. 5, pp. 209,
214.) The events were these -- a rebellion broke out that led to a
protracted struggle for eight years. The rebels were finally forced to
flee in 384 for protection. After remaining 3 years (to 387) they
continued their lengthy migration. It was now 11 years after the
initial rebellion. Eleven years before 387 is 376 -- the very year the
Romans drove out the Scots and suppressed the Painted Red Men of
Pictland! Is this mere coincidence? Their migration took them over
water and land till they reached Jalisco in Mexico. To do so they must
have landed in the traditional area of the Usumacinta River, crossed
the isthmus, and coasted to Jalisco on the southern extremity of the
Gulf of California. After wandering many years they settled in
Tulancingo. "The third year of their stay in Tulancingo completed ...
one hundred and four years since the departure from the country,"
records Bancroft from Ixtlilxochitl (vol. v, p. 213). (The 104 years
compose two Indian calendar cycles of 52 years each.) It was now 488.
At Tulancingo they remained another 15 years -- to 503. In 503
they migrated to the Valley of Mexico to the region of Lake Texcoco.
What caused them to migrate in 503? Is this a significant date in
Scottish history? Indeed. That was the year the Scots from Ireland
finally settled in Scotland and drove the wild Pictish tribes out of
Strengthened by a new influx of migrants, the Toltecs journeyed
(in 503) to the already-settled shores of the lake on which Mexico City
now stands. There, at Tullan, for six years the Toltecs lived under a
theocratic republic, each chief directing the movement of his band in
war and directing their needs in times of peace. "But in the seventh
year," records Bancroft, "after their arrival in Tollan, when the
republic was yet in a state of peace and prosperity, undisturbed by
foreign foes, the chiefs convened an assembly of the heads of families
and the leading men. The object of the meeting was to effect a change
in the form of their government, and to establish a monarchy." It was
agreed to accept, as king, a son of a neighboring Chichimec king to be
supreme ruler. "Immediately after the accession of the young monarch"
in 510, "a law was established by him and his counsellors to the effect
that no king should reign more than fifty-two years, but at the
expiration of this term should abdicate in favor of his eldest son,
whom he might, however, still serve as adviser. Should the king die
before the allotted time had elapsed, it was provided that the state
should be ruled during the unexpired term by magistrates chosen by the
people" (pp. 244, 246).
This custom continued firmly established among the Toltecs at
Tullan for many years. Later the practice was discontinued, though the
Mexican Indians still continued to count time by 52 year cycles. The
history of the American Indian from 510 to the coming of the Spanish
has been carefully preserved by Ixtlilxochitl and in the Annals of
Modern writers in previous decades often carelessly discounted the
value of these Indian records. But archaeology is forcing a renewed
respect for the history of the New World as preserved by the native
writers during the earliest days of the Spanish colonial period. The
most readily accessible -- and one of the best works -- on early Mexico
is -- "Aztecs of Mexico", by G. C. Valliant, revised by Suzannah B.
Valliant. Another useful source is Stokvis' "Manuel".
THE HISTORY OF TOLTECS AT TULLAN
The history of Tullan is the history of the Mayapan culture of
Mexico. Earlier cultures are commonly found, but no continuous history
exists before 510. The Toltecs were not the carriers of the culture of
Teotihuacan, as is often stated by archaeologists (see p. 6 of Penguin
edition of "The Aztecs of Mexico" by Valliant).
The following is a summary of the history of Tullan (or Tula),
restored in accordance with the earliest extant Aztec and Toltec
records. Bancroft's "Native Races of the Pacific States" may be
consulted for the full story of events. It is a treasure-house of
(Note that the "x" in Aztec names is pronounced as "sh.")
Toltec Kings of Tulan Lengths of Reign Dates
according to Ixtlilxochitl
Period of the Tullan 7 503-510
Republic under chieftains
Chalchiuhtlanetzin 52 510-562
Ixtlilcuechahauac 52 562-614
Huetzin I 52 614-666
Totepeuh I 52 666-718
Nacoxoc 52 718-770
Mitl-Tlacomihua 59 770-829
Queen Xihuiquenitzin 4 829-833
Izaccaltzin 52 833-885
Topiltzin I 74 885-959
A struggle with Chichimecs occurred during the reign of Topiltzin.
Topiltzin was forced to flee leaving authority in the hands of the
royal family of Ihuitimal. The confused conditions are reflected in the
joint rulership presented in the next short succeeding chart. The
parallel reigns also indicate that Toltec leadership was divided among
powerful city-state princes in the growing Toltec Empire which spread
itself in the Valley of Mexico.
Toltec Kings Lengths of Reign Dates
Mixcoatl Mazatin 65 804-869
Texcaltepocatl Huetzin 28 869-897
Ihuitimal 28 897-925
(or 36) (887-923)
Topiltzin I 22 925-947
(or 24) (923-947)
The above chart indicates Ihuitimal succeeded his father in 897,
but, according to the Annals of Cuauhtitlan, he replaced the fleeing
Topiltzin in 887. Topiltzin returned in 923. Ihuitimal ended his reign
two years later. Though Topiltzin continued on the throne to 959 (see
first chart), he was succeeded in 947 as follows.
Kings of Tullan Lengths of Reign Dates
according to the Annals
Matlacxochitl 36 947- 983
Nauhyotzin I 14 983- 997
Queen Xiuhtlaltzin 4 997-1001
Matlaccoatzin 24 1001-1025
Tlilcoatzin 21 1025-1046
Huemac 75 1046-1121
Huemac is another name of Quetzalcoatl (Bancroft Vol. III, pp.
267, 283-4). He was a ramous white man who came from the east with a
religion that banned human sacrifice and used the symbol of the cross.
The name Quetzalcoatl, was originally that of an early Aztec god.
It was applied by Aztecs to any great priest who claimed to represent
the deity. Huemac Quetzalcoatl disappeared and returned on several
occasions during his 75 years, leaving the supreme government, in his
absence, to contemporaries of the royal house. This white priest became
famous over much of the New World. Who was he? And what religion was he
The answer is found by the date of his death 1121. Was there a
famous white priest, with jurisdiction over areas of the Western
Hemisphere who died in 1121?
Yes! Icelandic Bishop Eric Gnupson, whose domain included the New
World! He died in 1121, the same year that Quetzalcoatl did. At his
death in 1121 the Icelandic Thing (Parliament) met to request the pope
that a new bishop be appointed (Conquest by Man, by Herrmann, pp. 286
-287) . The religion of Quetzalcoatl was Roman Catholicism. When the
Spanish missionaries later came to the Indians they were amazed to find
so many parallels to the Catholic religion -- holy water, nuns,
rosaries, the cross, penances and other traditions!
Contemporary with Huemac Quetzalcoatl were the following Tullan
Huemac II Atecpanecatl 35 1046-1081
Topiltzin Acxitl 33 1081-1114
Matlacxochitl Huemac III 2 1114-1116
Veytia gives 1116 as the date of the final overthrow of Tullan at
the coming of the Aztecs (Hist. Ant. Mej., bk. 1, pp. 287-304. ) See
also Bancroft, vol. 5., p. 325.
THE CITY-STATE OF CULHUACAN
A major expansion of the Toltecs occurred at the close of the end
of the fourth 52 year cycle -- in 718. In that year a branch of the
royal lineage founded Culhuacan. It suffered a major reverse in the
year 1063 at the hands of the Chichimecs who established a new dynasty
in Texcoco. The following chart covers the kings of Culhuacan until
Kings of Culhuacan Lengths of Reign Dates
Nauhyotl I 50 718- 768
Mixcohuatl Camaxtli 78 768- 846
Totepueh I Nonohyatcatl I
Yohuallatonac I 59 846- 905
Quetzallacxoyatl 49 905- 954
Chalchiuh-Tlatonac I 32 954- 986
Totepeuh II 41 986-1027
Nauhyotl II 36 1027-1063
For five years (1063-1068) the local government of Culhuacan was
in the hands of a Toltec noble Xiuhtemoc, to whom the late king's
children were confided. The year after the defeat, a young son of the
king was placed on the throne under the tutelage of Xiuhtemoc.
Kings of Culhuacan Lengths of Reign Dates
Nauhyotl III 60 1064-1124
Cuanhtexpetlatzin 57 1124-1181
Huetzin 21 1181-1202
Nonoalcatl 21 1202-1223
Achitometl 14 1223-1237
Cuauhtonal 14 1237-1251
NEW LINEAGE BEGINS
Mazatzin 23 1251-1274
Quetzaltzin 13 1274-1287
Chalchiuhtlatonac II 17 1287-1304
Cuauhtlix 7 1304-1311
Yohuallatonac 10 1311-1321
Tziuhtecatzin 13 1321-1334
Xihuitlemoc 18 1334-1352
Coxcox 24 1352-1376
Acamapichtli 12 1376-1388
Achitometl 12 1388-1400
Nauhyotl 13 1400-1413
The central government in the Valley of Mexico now passed into the
hands of the Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan.
Prior to the Aztec dominion, the Chichimecs at Texcoco were a
dominant Indian tribe. Their power commenced with the defeat of Tullan
THE CHICHIMECS AT TEXCOCO
Chichimec Kings of Lengths of Reign Dates
Xolotl 17 1063-1180
After the era of Xolotl
a new lineage begins.
Nopaltzin 31 1180-1211
Tlotzin Pochotl 35 1211-1246
Quinantzin Tlaltecatzin 59 1246-1305
Techotlala 52 1305-1357
Istlilxochitl 61 1357-1418
(For this king Valliant has
mistakenly dropped out an
entire cycle of 52 years in
Nezahualcoyotl 54 1418-1472
Nezahualpilli 44 1472-1516
Cacama 3 1516-1519
Spanish land in Vera Cruz, native rulers to 1550 continued with
limited authority. During part of the reign of Istlilxochitl, two
tyrants of Tepanec dominated the country. They are below.
Tepanec Tyrants at Lengths of Reign Dates
Tezozomoc 84 1343-1427
Maxtla 2 1427-1429
The Mexican Indians were, at the coming of the Spanish, under the
Aztec sway. Many tribes readily accepted Spanish assistance to aid them
in the overthrow of their oppressive rulers. They had yet to learn that
new oppressors were coming in the guise of deliverers. The following
outline illustrates the gradual rise to power of the Aztecs. The story
of the final overthrow of the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan is so
generally narrated as to need no repetition here. The city was
established under Tezcuecuex in 1202 at the end of the reign of Huetzin
Aztecs of Tenochtitlan Lengths of Reign Dates
Tezcuecuex 33 1202-1235
Huitzilhuitl, called Mexi, 63 1235-1298
after whom Mexico receives
Culhuacan seized Tenochtitlan. The city again became independent
under Tenoch in 1325.
Tenoch, after whom the city of 11 1325-1336
Tenochtitlan was named.
Tlacotin 1 1336-1337
Teuhtlehuac 12 1337-1349
Queen Ilancueitl 34 1349-1383
Acamapichtli, reigns 8 years 20 1375-1395
contemporary with previous
Huitzilhuitl II 19 1395-1414
Chimalpopoca 14 1414-1428
Itzcoatl 12 1428-1440
Montezuma I 29 1440-1469
Azayacatl 12 1469-1481
Tizoc 5 1481-1486
Ahuitzetl 17 1486-1503
Montezuma II, in his reign 17 1503-1520
the Spanish arrived.
Cuitlahuac 4 months 1520
(murdered on way to Honduras)
The history of the Peruvian civilization must wait until Spanish
history is presented.
Other cities of lesser import have left us a record but those
present here give the chronological outline from which a valid study of
Mexican history can begin.
THE HISTORY OF SPAIN
Who would guess today, from reading Spanish history, that Spain
was, in Old Testament times, one of the most important countries in the
world? That famous Biblical characters as Togarmah and Seir the Horite
and Tarshish made their appearance in this fabulous land?
Today the early history of Spain is virtually unknown. Scholars
treat it in much the same fashion as the history of every other nation
in Europe. Her past -- before Roman rule -- is made to appear a
chronological blank. What little is written before that time mainly
emphasizes broken pottery and similar artifacts.
The real history is vitally interesting. It holds the key to the
settlement of the Peruvian Indian in Latin America. Spain was also the
link between Palestine and Ireland. Whoever controlled Spain was in a
position to dominate the Western Mediterranean.
ONLY RECENTLY SUPPRESSED
Until very recent times Spanish writers took pride in presenting
their national history. They were not ashamed of it. Today, in the face
of "higher criticism," Spanish scholars have suppressed the truth of
her beginnings. What once was recognized to be fact is now relegated to
the limbo of myth for no other reason than early Spanish history reads
very much like the Bible!
Early Spanish history does not begin in Spain. It begins far to
the east -- in the lands bordering the ancient Assyrian Empire.
Similarly, the history of the Hebrews of the Bible does not begin with
Palestine, but with the land of the Chaldeans in Mesopotamia. In its
earliest period the history of the Iberian Peninsula is not primarily
the story of the Spanish people at all. It is the history of other
people who migrated through that land, or temporarily dominated it.
Few books in English preserve the history we are now entering
upon. The two works most readily available in libraries are Anderson's
"Royal Genealogies" and the 20 volume "Universal History", published in
1748. The Spanish material is contained in volume xviii.
Our story opens in Asia Minor, in the region of the city of
Tarsus. Paul the apostle was born here. Tarsus was a port first settled
by the children of Tarshish. From Tarsus in Cilicia they gradually
migrated into Spain, where they founded the city of Tartessus. The
earliest homeland of the children of Tarshish in Asia Minor was
originally ruled over by Tubal, son of Japheth. Spanish history begins
with his government at Babel.
The land about Tarsus in Asia Minor long bore the name of Tubal.
The Assyrians, in their cuneiform documents, referred to it as Tabal.
It extended from the area of what is eastern Turkey today into the
Caucasus to the Russian plains.
The most valuable area in the ancient land of Tabal was the
excellent farming and trading region of Iberia in the Caucasus -- the
modern Georgia. From this vast area, the descendants of Tubal migrated
into the Russian steppes. But their subjects, the children of Tarshish,
migrated westward toward Spain. Early Spanish history is in a sense the
story of the Spanish people, but the record of their foreign rulers.
The following outline summarizes the important events preserved of
the early history of the Spanish people beginning from the Tower of
EARLIEST KINGS OVER THE SPANISH
Name of Rulers Lengths of Reign Dates
Tubal 156 2254-2098
Grandson of Noah (Gen.
10:2). Came to power at
Babel. Ruled over territory
in eastern Asia Minor (Turkey)
where Tarshish, the father of
the Spaniards, originally
Iberus, a son of Tubal 37 2098-2061
He gave his name to the
entire peninsula, which
is still known as the
Iberian Peninsula. Later
his descendants migrated
from Spain to Iberia in
Eubalda (or Idubeda) 64 2061-1997
Son of Iberus, last of
the line of Tubal to
rule over the children
Brigus 52 1997-1945
Son of Mash, the son of
Aram (Gen. 10:23). Previously
settled a colony in Eastern
Europe under Asshur; now
leads a colony to Spain
by sea. An Aramaic large
nosed element may be seen
in the Spanish population
to this day.
The ancient city
of Damascus, Syria, was
named after his father Mash.
Brigus (Brigo) organized
his people into pastoral
units (whence our "brigades"),
which multiplied so rapidly
that colonies were forced
to leave Spain in search
of new homes. Some of his
children from Europe early
carried his name into Phrygia
(Asia Minor). There the
family became associated with
Meshech, brother of Tubal.
Brigo's father, Mash, became
known by the name Meshech
(I Chr. 1:17).
Brigo's family in
Spain soon became associated
with the children of Togarmah,
who next entered Spain.
Tagus Ormah 30 1945-1915
The Togarmah, son of Gomer,
of the Bible (Gen. 10:2).
Late Latin writers split his
name into two syllables, and
added Latin "-us" ending.
Togarmah invaded Italy one
year after his domination of
Spain. Both were yet sparcely
populated lands and afforded new,
hospitable areas. During his
reign he sent many bands to
seek habitations elsewhere,
ultimately passing eastward
into the far northern reaches
of Asia (Ezekiel 38:6).
The Tagus River of Southern
Spain was named for him.
Bet(us), or Boetus, 32 1915-1883
(or 31) (1915-1884)
son of Togarmah; Bet(us)
gave his name to the Bet(us)
river (now called Guadalquivir).
In his day the children of
Tarshish, known as Turditanians,
in Spanish histories, settled
the southwestern part of
Spain. Boetus encouraged
the development of learning.
The children of Betus were
soon forced to migrate
out of Europe, with the rest
of the family of Togarmah, and
at length settled in Tibet -- which
means the plateau of Bet! The
family of Togarmah was superseded
by an invasion from the south.
INVASION FROM AFRICA
Having become again a civilized land and wealthy due to changes in
climate and the presence of many gold mines, Spain aroused the cupidity
of Egyptian and other North African nations. Gerion or Deabus, a
Lybian, with many men and ships invaded and conquered Spain and forced
the Spaniards to dig gold for their African overlords. African cultural
elements were introduced. Many Spanish slaves died from overwork under
this tyranny. The history of this period is as follows:
Rulers of Spain Lengths of Reign Dates
Gerion, the giant 34 1883-1849
(or 35) (1884-1849)
Gerion was the seventh
generation from Ham. He
descended through Cush,
Saba (the Seba of Gen. 10:7),
Gog, Triton, Ammon and
Hiarba (compare the last
name with the Biblical "Arba"
of Joshua 15:13, who was the
father of the Anakim glants).
The Lomnini 42 1849-1807
The Lomnini were three giant
sons of Gerion. They were
allowed to continue to rule
in the land after an invasion
in 1849 by an Egyptian army under
Osyris Denis (Dionysius in
Osyris slew Gerion in 1849, upon which part of his tribe took to
ship and sailed to the New World. A tradition found among the Toltecs
of Mexico and preserved by Ixtlilxochitl declares there once were
giants in their land.
Even the date of the arrival of these giants has been preserved by
the Toltec historian. It was 520 years after the flood. (Bancroft
"Native Races of the Pacific States", vol. V, p. 209. ) The year of the
flood was 2370-2369. And 520 years AFTER the flood -- that is, after
2369 -- is 1849, the very year a great battle was fought in Spain
during which Gerion was slain and many of the giants were expelled.
Later Indian tradition records the perishing of these giants in the New
World in a struggle with the Indians.
One of the Lomnini in Spain, meanwhile, was given to wife a sister
of Osyris. A son of the union, Norac, settled Sardinia and built the
city of Norca. Sardinia is famous for traditionally being inhabited by
giants who left the megalithic remains and giant tombs. Early British
tradition also assigns to swarthy giants the building of many of the
megalithic monuments or henges.
To avenge the death of their father, the three Lomnini brothers
conspired with Typhon, brother of Osyris. Typhon assassinated his
After the death of Osyris, Hercules appears on the scene. Rather
than drench the whole land in a bloodbath, he challenged the three sons
of Gerion to personal combat -- three against one -- and slew them all.
Hercules then turned the government of southern Spain over to Hispal,
his son and one of his generals, and departed with the bulk of his army
Who were Osyris, Typhon and Heracles of Spanish, Italian and North
Note the time setting. These events are long after the death of
Nimrod (2167) or of Miebis (2037), who was the second Osiris. The dates
of these events correspond to the latter half of Dynasty II in Egypt.
It is the period of the patriarch Jacob. The Hercules of these
traditions has already been proved to be Seir the Horite. In Spanish
history Hercules is often referred to as "Oron," meaning the Horite. He
was a king of Egypt -- a descendant of Horus. He slew the giant
Antaeus, another king of Egypt, records Josephus the Jewish historian.
Who are all these supposedly mythological rulers?
The surprising answer is that they have all been listed in Volume
I -- they are kings of the second half of Dynasty II of Egypt. Notice
Antaeus -- an opponent of Osiris -- was a man of giant stature. So
was Sesochris (Neferkaseker), who reigned 1815-1767. Typhon, the slayer
of Osiris, was pictured as a destroyer in the Greek traditions of this
period. King Chaires (Aka) bore the title "Destroyer." His reign began
also in 1815. Following a war in Egypt against the faction of Osiris
III, he temporarily received the "united kingdoms of Upper and Lower
Egypt and the seal of the accursed one" -- Osiris.
Then who was Osiris III -- the Osiris Dionysius of Spanish
history? None other than king Sendi (the Sethenes of Manetho). His
body, according to the tradition, was cast into the Nile. Reports
Weigall of him: "No trace of the king's tomb has been found; and ... he
seems to have met with disaster at the end" ("The History of the
Pharaoh's", page 136).
And now notice Hercules in this same dynasty. Hercules -- the Seir
the Horite of Scripture -- was renowned for having subdued Libya, and
the vast territories that lie west of Egypt. He was called Heracles
Libycus. Did one of the Pharaoh's of this same period conquer Libya?
Certainly -- Necherophes. Manetho records of him: "In his reign Libya
revolted, but, on account of an unexpected increase of the moon, they
submitted through fear."
Now to continue with the outline of Spanish history. Hercules --
Seir the Horite -- put Hispal his son over the country. He could be
none other than Shobal of Genesis 36:20. It is common for a silent "h"
to appear before Spanish names. The successor to Hispal or Shobal was
Hispan, a grandson of Hercules.
Is there a grandson of Seir the Horite by that name? See the name
in Genesis 36:26 -- Eshban! He was a son of Dishon, another son of
Seir. Now it ought to be plain why Scripture records the genealogy of
this famous man. Without it, there would be no means of understanding
who the rulers of these times were. When we come to Italian history, we
shall see how they link up with the family of Jacob. Meantime, the
history of Spain in chart form is presented below.
Hispal, son of Hercules. 17 1807-1790
He built the city Hispalis,
later known as Sepila, now
Hispanus, grandson of Heracles. 32 1790-1758
Gave his name to Hispania
(Spain) in consequence of
extending his rule (during
his first year 1790-1789)
into central and northern
regions of the peninsula
previously settled only by
wild tribes. He built towers
to control the region of
Gallicia in Spain.
Once again Spanish history has a bearing on the New World. The
attack by Hispanus on these rude tribes in the northern regions on the
shores of the Bay of Biscay is recorded in Toltec history.
Ixtlilxochitl records that a second invasion from the east occurred
2236 years after the creation of man (Bancroft, vol. v, p. 209). Notice
how this figure corresponds with both the Bible and Spanish history.
At the death of Hispanus, Hercules, that is, Seir the Horite,
reappears in Spain and Western Europe in his old age.
Hercules 19 1758-1739
Note that these dates
correspond exactly with
those of his rule in Britain
and Gaul. It is significant
that Hercules' family should
appear so prominently in
Western Europe. They must
already have been driven out
of Mt. Seir by Esau. Hercules
left no heir to the Spanish
throne He was succeeded by
one of his generals.
Hesperus 11 1739-1728
Spanish records declare
Hesperus to be one of the
two captains (not his sons)
who accompanied Hercules in
his original exploits into
Spain. He gave his name
Hesperus to Spain and Italy
which in early times were
called Hesperia Minor and
Hesperia Major respectively.
He was driven out of Spain
into Italy by his brother,
who succeeded him.
Atlas 12 1728-1716
Sometimes called Italus.
A brother of Hesperus, the
other captain of Hercules,
a famous astronomer;
dethroned and exiled
Josephus, the Jewish historian, also wrote about these two famous
captains of Hercules in "Antiquities", I, xv. Here are his words:
"Abraham after this married Keturah" -- Genesis 25, "by whom six sons
were born to him ..." Then Josephus names Midian, a son of Abraham,
who begat "Ephas and Ophren," called Ephah and Epher in the Bible. "It
is related of this Ophren, that he made war against Libya, and took it;
and that his grandchildren, when they inhabited it, called it (from his
name) Africa; and indeed Alexander Polyhistor gives his attestation to
what I here say; who speaks thus: ' ... from the other two (Apher and
Japhran) the country of Africa took its name; because these men were
auxiliaries to Hercules, when he fought against Libya and Antaeus.' "
Josephus understood that the two famous captains of Hercules were
the grandsons of Abraham.
Hesperus, who was later exiled in a family quarrel, was the
Biblical Ephah. Atlas, the strong man and astronomer, was Epher. It is
his line that continued to control the western Mediterranean for
The late Greek writers at times confused this Atlas, who was also
known from Italian history as Atlas Italus Kitim (because he ruled the
land of Kittim), with another Atlas. That other Atlas was surnamed
Maurus and was the descendant, in Greek tradition, of Japetus and Asia.
Japetus or Iapetus was the Japheth of the Bible. Atlas Maurus is
associated with Spain and North Africa because his people were
migrating from the borders of Asia westward to the New World. The only
son of Japheth whose children left Western Asia and Eastern Europe was
Tiras. Atlas Italus Kitim was succeeded by a son --
Oris or Sicorus, son of Atlas 44 1716-1672
(or 45) (1718-1673)
Anus or Sicanus, son of Sicorus 31 1672-1641
(or 32) (1673-1641)
Gave his name to people whom
he led through Italy to Sicily.
From these Sicani the island of
Sicily was anciently called
Sicileus or Siculus, son of 45 1641-1596
Sicorus (or 44) (1641-1597)
Crossed into Italy. He changed
the name of Sicania to Sicilia.
Lusus, son of Siculus 29 1596-1567
(or 60) (1567-1507)
He gave his name to Lusitania (now Portugal)
Ulus or Siculus, son of Lusus 64 1567-1503
(or 60) (1567-1507)
He was also known as Neptune.
He had great fleets of ships.
Ulus again led an army into
Sicily to aid the colonists whose
presence there was still being
opposed. At the close of his
reign, in 1503, a city was
founded on the coast of Spain
by refugees from Greece. The
year 1503 is the date of a
great devastation in Thessaly,
the flood of Deucalion, in
which many perished. In this
period -- the "neolithic" --
the inhabitants of Thessaly
were culturally like Mexican
Indians ("The Origins of Greek
Civilization", C. G. Starr, p. 17,
footnote) Again notice the
harmony of these records.
CHAOS IN SPAIN
Testa 70 1503-1433
A descendant of Triton (thus
related to Gerion), seized
southwestern Spain and called
himself king of Spain.
Romus, son of Testa 33 1433-1400
In his third year "Liber Pater,"
or Bacchus (Iacchus), reduced
Spain to his sway. He was from
the East. His title belonged
to Hesus the Mighty of Celtic
tradition. Hesus was Joshua (Jesus
in Greek). He pursued the
Canaanites and drove them
out of Western Europe
Palatuus, son of Romus 19 1400-1381
Cacus Licinius 36 1381-1345
A native prince who rebelled
and deposed Palatuus in a
Palatuus restored 6 1345-1339
In his days Erithrus, king (or 15) (1345-1330)
of Tyre, came to Spain.
Erithree, or Erithrus, king 66 1339-1273
Corgoras Mellicola, son of 75 1273-1198
Erithree He divided Spain
into several provinces.
Hebides or Habis, grandson 49 1198-1149
of Gorgoras (or 64) (1198-1134)
Following the recapture of Troy in 1149 many groups of people,
conquered as well as conquerors, sought new homes. As a result several
areas of western and northern Spain were populated. The Lydians
achieved dominance after 1149 over all the Mediterranean region,
heading the list of Thalassocracies or Sea Powers. Their dominion in
Spain began in 1149. Each of the Sea Powers in turn dominated Spain
until Nebuchadnezzar the Great of Babylon made Spain a part or the
Chaldean Empire for 9 years. After that, the Spaniards of Gades invited
the Carthaginians to come and rule over them. The Carthaginians
remained until expelled by the expanding Roman Empire.
TIME OF THE SEA POWERS
As ancient Troy was the key to control of the Eastern
Mediterranean, so Spain was to the Western Mediterranean. There are
noticeable variations between the two regions that are worth noting. In
volume I of the Compendium, in the chapter on Greek history, the list
for the Eastern Mediterranean appears. Below is the Spanish evidence
for the West, including the Atlantic littoral.
Sea Powers for Western Duration Dates
Mediterranean to 530
Lydians 48 1149-1101
Thracians 86 970-884
Rhodians 20 884-864
Phrygians 26 864-838
Cyprians 39 838-799
Phoenicians 41 799-758
Egyptians 35 758-723
Milesians 29 723-694
Carians 48 694-646
Lesbians 68 646-578
Phocaeians 48 578-530
There is a gap deliberately inserted in this list. It is similar
to attempts elsewhere to expurgate any record of the Pelasgians, who
were the Hebrews of the Kingdom of Israel. The missing item should be
Pelasgians 131 1101-970
This list indicates that the Hebrews became dominant in Spain at
the time the Lydians resettled in the Grecian world in 1101.
The 9 years of Nebuchadnezzar's dominion began in 578 and lasted
until 569, the year his insanity commenced. He gained dominion over the
Mediterranean through the Phocaeian fleets. Nebuchadnezzar established,
as his representative in Spain a long-lived hero named Aganthonius who
ruled 80 years (578-498) to the coming of the Carthaginians in 498.
With this, the early history of the Spanish is restored. Its
important connection with Biblical and secular history is obvious --
and especially so when one remembers that Spanish historians also
mention the 26 years' drought in Spain referred to in Irish Annals.
This was the famine in David's time, and precipitated the establishment
of the Hebrew throne in Ireland.
ITALY, HOME OF PAGAN RELIGION
Nearly everyone has heard of the ancient pagan Greek and Roman
gods and goddesses. But almost no one knows that they were originally
great rulers of Italy.
The whole modern Christian world has been influenced by Roman
Catholicism. The story in pre-Roman times was the same. Instead of
paganism spreading to Rome from Greece, it really spread from Italy to
It was the vogue of the last century to ridicule the myths of Rome
and of Greece. The gods and goddesses were regarded as mere human
inventions -- rigments of the superstitious madness of the ancients. To
admit that they were originally flesh-and-blood human beings would have
been tantamount to admitting the reality of the Bible. For several of
the heroes-made-god of ancient Italy are characters of the Bible.
ITALY IN THE ANCIENT WORLD
There is a very special reason that Italy became the home of
religious apostasy in the West. The pagan mystery religions had a very
special problem confronting them in Italy. They had to counter the
teachings of Noah!
Yes, Noah appears as a ruler in the early history of Italy! Noah
lived both sides of the Flood. He knew what life meant. Apart from him
the whole human family would have been wiped from off the face of the
earth. The world's religious leaders knew that if they were to succeed
they must, in some way, counterfeit, in Italy, the teachings of Noah --
just as later they were to counterfeit the teachings of Christ. The
parallel is exact.
To counterfeit Christ, they took Christ's name and labeled their
superstition "Christian." They began to worship Christ. "This people
honoreth me with their lips, but their heart is far from me. But in
vain worship they me, teaching for doctrines commands of men" (Mark
To subdue the doctrines Noah preached, they made a pretense of
following him -- claiming they were doing what he commanded them,
claiming to do it by his authority. And when Noah died they began to
worship him! They called him, in their mysteries, Janus -- the one who
could look into both worlds because he experienced the worlds on either
side of the Flood.
WHAT ITALIAN HISTORY REVEALS
The history of Italy was preserved down to Roman times. Not until
the Middle Ages was it allowed to die a natural death. What could not
be disproved was left undiscussed. The scholarly world soon forgot the
records in its possession. Those who did take note of them began
labeling them as recent inventions -- just as they did the history of
every other nation. Now let us open the pages of Italian history and
see what really occurred in ancient Italy.
The history of Italy opens -- as might be expected -- with human
government beginning at the Tower of Babel. Italian history begins
immediately after the Flood -- with the land without inhabitants for
108 years. The first family to settle in Italy, according to ancient
history, was Gomer. But why should this be so unusual, when one
considers the contemporary history of Spain?
Gomer's children generally passed eastward out of Europe into
Asia. Archaeology traces the movements of the earliest cultures of the
children of Gomer from southern Europe into Asia. (See the previous
chapter on the history of Spain under the family of Togarmah.)
Because Gomer was the earliest hero this side the Flood to
populate limited areas of Europe, it became a Middle-Age superstition
to label all the people of Europe the descendants of Gomer. Most Bible
maps are so labeled today. But they are wrong. In the very first
chapter, on the history of Germany, is proof that Shem's descendants
now inhabit Western Europe. The fiction that Gomer was the ancestor of
these people was deliberately, and knowingly, invented to cloak the
identity of the House of Israel and of the Chaldeans and Assyrians. The
Germans do not want their identity known to the world. Nor do the
Chaldeans. And the House of Israel wants to believe it is Gentile.
Now to continue the history of Italy as preserved to us from the
same sources which give us German, Spanish and early British history.
Patriarchs, Rulers and
Kings of Italy Years Dates
Uninhabited after the Flood. 108 2369-2261
Janus (Noah) plants colonies 33 2261-2228
in Mediterranean. Janus was
also called Vertumnus because
through him the seasons
continue in their cycle.
Noah exercised authority in
the period that both Shem
and Heber appear dominant on
the world scene elsewhere.
Gomer -- his son Ashkenaz 58 2228-2170
(Ochus) succeeded him.
Ochus, son of Gomer. 50 2170-2120
Camese (Ham) 19 2120-2101
Janus (Noah again) 82 2101-2019
Cranus Razenus, son of Janus 54 2019-1965
or Noah -- Shem; the name
means the crowned one, and
father of many races or peoples.
Aurunus, son of predecessor -- 43 1965-1922
Aram -- from whom descended
the Ausonians or Uzites.
Tagus Ormah (Togarmah), son 42 1922-1880
of Gomer. Togarmah augmented
and established a religious
system which came to be called
the "rites of Janus." Here was
an early parallel of the later
pagan attempt to establish its
religion on the world in the
name of Christ. Togarmah
obtained the designation Malot
because he AUGMENTED -- the
meaning of malot -- the pagan
rites. Is it not significant
that those lands most filled
with hideous pagan superstition
are the very areas settled by
the sons of Gomer and especially
Togarmah -- Tibet and
Siberia? The Tibetans acquired
their rites from Italy!
Sicanus, son of Togarmah. 30 1880-1850
His wife was Ceres, who was
worshipped as goddess of
agriculture. It was her ideas
which encouraged priests of
the pagan religion to support
themselves by living off the
agricultural labor of others.
Sicanus left only a daughter,
Proserpina, who was married
to Orcus, king of the Molossi
in Epirus. Thereafter the
government passed to petty
kings or Tyrants.
Reign of Enachi Tyrants. 30 1850-1820
This period corresponds in
part to the time of the African
invasion of Spain. Their
overthrow was recorded in Greek
myth as the war with the giants.
Were these sons of Anak?
Osiris Apis 10 1820-1810
Osyris of Egypt drove out (or 12) 1820-1808
tyrants and reigned in their
stead. He is Sendi, King of Egypt.
Lestrigonians, sons of 45 1810-1765
Neptune, the son of Osiris. (or 43) (1808-1765)
For last ten years of his
reign Hercules warred
Heracles, Seir the Horite 30 1765-1735
in Scripture; called "Oron"
-- the Horite -- in Spanish
Tuscus, son of Heracles. He 27 1735-1708
drilled people in art of war.
Alteus, son of Tuscus. 7 1708-1701
Hesperus, brother of Atlas. 11 1701-1690
Italus Atlantus Kittim. 19 1690-1671
(See history of Spain for his
identity.) Atlas left only a
daughter Roma (or Electra);
she was therefore of the
family of Abraham through
Keturah's son Midian, according
to Josephus and the
records of Spain.
Morges, a prince of the 20 1671-1651
Morgetae in Italy.
Cambon, son of Blasco, called 50 1651-1601
Corito or Corythus. Married (33) jointly (1634-1601)
Roma (Electra) daughter of with Roma
Atlas Kitim; she was the
concubine of a Jupiter. Sammes'
"Britannia Antiqua Illustrata"
is of major assistance in
clarifying Anderson's "Royal
Geneologies" during this
period. See also "Historia" by
Bartholome Gutierrez, page 165.
Jasius 50 1601-1551
A descendant of Jupiter, but
not from Electra. In the year
1601 the throne of Britain
had become vacant and Jasius
was chosen to fill the vacant
throne in Britain. From
Britain he ruled all Celtica
and Italy. At his death the
throne of Britain was separated
from Italy. The royal line
continues in Italy thus:
Corybantus. 48 1551-1503
Corybantus was the son of
Jasius and Cybele. He and
his mother divided Italy into
12 provinces and set over them
12 rulers, after which they
retired into Phrygia. A few
Israelites were fleeing from
Egypt at this period due to
persecution by the Egyptians.
Tyrrenus migrates with 51 1503-1452
Lydians from Asia Minor.
After his reign the unity of Italy ceased. Not until the rise of
the Roman Republic did all the numerous tribes in Italy again become
united under one government. Hereafter the history of Italy is the
story of the Kings of the Tuscans and of Kittim. The history parallel
to the Kingdom of Etruria will be presented after that of the Tuscans.
THE HISTORY OF ETRURIA
The story of Etruria or Tuscany is essentially the history of
those invading nations who dwelt in Italy, but were not descended from
Kittim. The people of Etruria were a heterogeneous group of tribes.
Kings of the Tuscans Lengths of Reign Dates
Tharcon I 23 1452-1429
Abas 15 1429-1414
Olanus 21 1414-1393
Veibenus 42 1393-1351
Oscus 34 1351-1317
Tharcon II 46 1317-1271
Tiberinus, expels Pelasgi 30 1271-1241
from Italy in time of
Jabin, king of Canaan.
Mezentius. 22 1241-1219
He was expelled for his
tyranny and fled to Cerytes
during the rule of Tharcon
III. Mezentius afterwards
aided Turnus against Aeneas.
Tharcon III 20 1219-1199
Ocnus Blanor 46 1199-1153
Pipinus 52 1153-1103
Nicius Fesulanus. 47 1101-1054
He expelled the Phoenicians
from the isle of Corsica,
and built the city of Nicea.
Piseus. 52 1054-1002
He is credited with several
inventions. This is the
era of Solomon and world
wide growth in culture and
in foreign trade.
Thuscus 39 1002- 963
Amnus 25 963- 938
Felsinus. 43 938- 895
He built Felsina the
metropolis of the Tuscans.
Bon 28 895- 867
Atreius 27 867- 840
Marsias 18 840- 822
Etalus 39 822- 783
Coelius 21 783- 762
Galerius Arbanus Lucumo 20 762- 742
Lukius 25 742- 717
Cibitus 82 717- 635
Lucumo Clusinus 58 635- 577
King Tarquinus Priscus of (or 38 to the time (635- 597)
Rome wasted Tuscany about of struggle
596, but at their entreaty with Rome.)
a peace was concluded in
584, By this peace they gave
to Tarquin a crown of gold,
an ivory chair, a sceptre
with an eagle at the end of
it, a purple robe embroidered
with gold, a gown and 12 axes,
which Tarquin received with
the senate's consent.
Rhaetus 20 577- 557
He gave name to the Rhetians,
a people of the Alps. King
Serbius Tullius of Rome
triumphed three times over
the Tuscans, who were at
last forced to submit.
Hyellus 44 557- 513
Porcena Clusius 58
Tolumnius Laertes 24 455- 431
Eques Tuscus 40 431- 391
Livius Fidenatus 48 391- 343
Elbius Tuscus 32 343- 311
Turrenus 41 311- 270
A major blow was struck,
beginning in 285, against
Etruria. The king
surrendered his government
to the Romans. So closed
the independent history of
the Tuscan tribes in
Etruria, many of whom now
scattered into neighboring
princes continued as follows
until the reign of Emperor
Titus (Tito) 40 270- 230
Volturrenus 48 230- 182
Cecinna 56 182- 126
Menippus 46 126- 80
Menodorus 36 80- 44
Mencenate 56 B.C. 44 - 13 A.D.
Seinao 23 13- 36
Scevino 33 36- 69
Otho Torentius (the 1 (actually 69
Emperor Otho) ruled only 3
Jan. 15-Apr. 19, 69)
THE HISTORY OF THE LATINS
Meanwhile the descendants of the children of Kittim were being
ruled over by descendants of the family of Abraham. The famous woman
Electra or Roma was daughter of Atlas Kittim. Josephus reveals Atlas to
have been Epher, Abraham's grandson. His daughter is called the
concubine of Jupiter (see Icelandic history earlier in this volume),
From Electra, who later married Cambon, came a line of rulers who were
later accounted gods or divine heroes. The list carries us down to the
coming of Aeneas of Troy, recorded in Volume I. All these royal lines
were related to the family of Abraham.
List of Kings Length of Reign Dates
Roma, previously concubine 46 1634-1588
Romanessus, son of 79 1588-1509
Picus 57 1509-1452
Faunus 30 1452-1422
Annus 54 1422-1368
Vulcan 36 1368-1332
Marte (Mars) sometimes 23 1332-1309
referred to as Janus.
Saturn, arrived from 36 1309-1273
Crete in 1331.
Picus, sometimes called 34 1273-1239
Faunus the younger. 24 1239-1215
Latinus (Lateinos) 38 1215-1177
The year 35 of Latinus was 1181-1180. Aeneas of Troy arrived that
year (see Dionysius of Halicarnassus, I, 44). In year 38 (1178-1177)
Latinus died and Aeneas succeeded -- by the Roman non-accession year
To conclude the surprising early history of Italy, here is a
slightly different mode of reckoning the earliest rulers. Anderson's
"Royal Genealogies" records, from documents extant in the sixteenth
century, the lengths of reigns from the time of Shem's settlement of
colonies in Europe. That event may be dated from the "Bavarian
Chronicle" to 2214. Gomer 127 (2214-2087); Janus or Noah 45
(2087-2042); Sabatius Saga, a son of Cush who fled Armenia via Germany
to Italy, 31 (2042-2011); Cranus 61 (2011-1950); Arunus 41 (1950-1909);
Malot Tages 38 (1909-1871); Sicanus 30 (1871-1841); Tyrants 38
(1841-1803); Osyris 10 (1803-1793); Lestrigo 33 (1793-1760); Hercules
30 (1760-1730); Tuscus 35 (1730-1695); Alteus 20 (1695-1675); Atlas
Italus Kittim 16 (1675-1659); Morges 9 (1659-1650); Camboblasco 50
(1650-1600); Jasius 49 (1600-1551); Coribantus 41 (1551-1510).
Coribantus and his mother set twelve princes over twelve provinces
and departed to Phrygia in Asia Minor. As Coribantus is otherwise
assigned a total of 48 years (1551-1503), his 41-year reign indicates
that the twelve princes governed the last seven years of his reign
THE STORY OF THE PERUVIAN INDIANS
Strange as it may seem, the Peruvian Indians preserved their
history back to Babel. Pre-Inca records specifically refer to and date
correctly the reigns of Cush, Nimrod and Horus, or Gilgamesh! Every
generation of rulers over the children of Tiras are named to the coming
of the Incas. Yet today all this has been lost to public knowledge.
MODERN SCHOLARSHIP DISCARDED THE FACTS
Modern scholars have done little to acquaint us with the true
history of early Peru. In the early centuries following the Spanish
conquest of Peru and neighboring regions, many native records came into
the possession of the conquerors. The assumption that the Incas knew
only how to tie knots in a string to remind them of the past is absurd.
Granted, the 'quipus' -- or knotted strings -- were used.
The Peruvian Indians also painted records of past events. They had
trained priests whose function was to record and repeat the traditions
of the past. The fact that the Spanish did recover the history of the
Peruvian Indians from the beginning is in itself proof that a great
many records were available. No nation which was able to achieve the
architectural wonders of the Peruvian highlands would lack the means to
preserve its heritage.
The modern view of Peruvian history is that it cannot be
established more than a century before the commencement of the Spanish
colonial period. Archaeologists have done amazingly well in recovering
cultural artifacts buried in the ground, but they have thus far been
unwilling to associate what they find with early Peruvian history found
in the authentic Indian records by the conquerors. The slightest study
of Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa's "History of the Incas" would have
confirmed the accuracy of his outline. Archaeology everywhere
substantiates the written record wherever it has been carefully
Sir Clements Markham has contributed heavily toward Inca and
Pre-Inca studies by his two books "The Incas of Peru" and "History of
the Incas." The former contains the list of kings from the beginning as
preserved by Montesinos. It gives just over 100 names out of which
nearly 80% have the lengths of reign preserved. Montesinos did not give
sufficient information to establish every reign, but the list is so
nearly complete that it is not at all difficult to determine
contemporary events between Peru and the rest of the world. The latter
volume preserves an invaluable outline of the Inca period.
WHAT ARCHAEOLOGISTS FOUND
Archaeologists are not settled on terminology, but they have
described Peruvian remains rather well. The story begins with an
Incipient Era of hunting and early agriculture. There follows a
Developmental Era that is usually not well divided. It ought to be
expressed in two, rather than three phases -- the Formative and the
Cultist -- to use archaeological Jargon. There is great technical
progress and a widespread religious cult. A complete break ends the
Thereafter a Florescent Era appears, around 350 B.C., with many
new techniques indicative of a dynamic period. In some ways the level
of the artistic sense, however, does not advance.
Then comes a Climactic Era, commencing shortly after 500 A.D. It
is divided into Expansionist, Urbanist and Imperialist periods. The
Expansionist commences with conquest and political and social
unification. It breaks down into disruption and decadence. Local
autonomy with large centers of population characterize the Urbanist.
The Imperialist is a great military Empire, which was superseded, in
1532, by the Spanish Colonial period.
Archaeologists and historians alike have limited the Inca rule
exclusively to the Imperialist and generally date it around 1440. Had
they read the Inca history they would have found that the entire
Climactic Era, beginning shortly after 500 A.D. belongs to the Incas.
Sarmiento de Gamboa commences Inca rule in 565 A.D. And rightly so. The
history of the Inca royal family corresponds in exact detail, period by
period, with Expansionist, Urbanist and Imperialist.
One objection often presented to such an extensive Inca period is
the unusually long length of life necessitated for the rulers. Several
are over a hundred years old. The argument would be valid if it were
possible to demonstrate that human beings cannot live that long! But
human beings do often live to be well over one hundred years of age.
For example, long after Moses wrote that the life span of man centers
about 70 years, individuals are still recorded as living past 120
years. In those days the Peruvian highlands were virgin, and fit for
vigorous living. In some instances the length of reign is due to birth
of a son in the Inca's old age -- or to a birth of an heir after the
death of a predecessor. History, when confirmed by archaeology, should
be allowed to speak for itself.
Now to illustrate the history of Peru, from the Tower of Babel to
the Spanish Colonial period. Notice that the names of even the earliest
rulers appear in the native dialect. Many of the names are titles or
Names of Peruvians Lengths of Reign Dates
Beginning at Babel
The first 18 are of the
Pirua Dynasty. The
relationship of one to
another is not always
1 Pirua Pacari Manco (Ayar 60 2254-2194
Uchu), the Cush of the
2. Manco Capac I, the Nimrod 30 2194-2164
of Scripture. He built the
first city after the flood.
(Markham, "Hist. of the Incas",
3. Huanacahui Pirua 50 2164-2114
4. Sinchi Cozque 60 2114-2054
5. Inti Capac Yupanqui 50 2054-2004
6. Manco Capac II, is Horus; 20 2004-1984
note that in Inca records
he has same name as Nimrod
does in Inca tradition.
ILLUSTRATION FROM BURMA
The date 2004 is a remarkable parallel for the return to power of
Horus in Mesopotamia in 2006. Clearly the ancestors of the Peruvians
lived outside Mesopotamia, bordering on the River Tyras. As
confirmation of the exactness of Peruvian material, compare the
following figures which have been extracted from the earliest history
of Burma. Notice the same figure 2004 for Maradzi II. The ancestors of
the Burmese Arakan people were at that time also living in the steppes
Early Kings who Ruled Lengths of Reign Dates
Over People who now from Burmese Records
live in Arakan, Burma (Stokvls' "Manuel")
Marayu, is Cush 62 2254-2192
Maradzi I, is Nimrod 32 2192-2160
The name is derived from
the Hebrew root "marad," to
rebel. A Maradzu is a
Maraonleng 53 2160-2107
Mararwayleng 48 2107-2059
Marabheng 55 2059-2004
Maradzi II, is Horus 33 2004-1971,
Now to continue with the Peruvian Kings.
points of reign
reign are in
some cases lost.
7. Tupac Capac -- 1950
8. Tini Capac Yupanqui -- 1900
9. Titu Capac Yupanqui -- 1875
10. Inti Capac Pirua Amaru -- 1850
11. Capac Sayhua Capac 60 1800
12. Capac Tinia Yupanqui 40 1750
13. Ayar Tacko 25 1725
14. Huascar Titu 30 1700
15. Quispi Titu -- 1675
16. Titu Yupanqui Patchacutec I -- 1650
17. Titu Capac 25 1625
18. Paullu Ticac Pirua 30 1600
A new line of kings
commences with Amauta.
The word signifies a
Magian, or priest.
19. Lloque Tesag Amauta, a priest 50 1575
Is there not a connection here with the Empire of Sargon and his
sons in Mesopotamia? They had a vast empire, and on more than one
occasion Sargon voyaged across the seas. (See Pritchard's "Ancient Near
20. Cayo Manco Amauta I -- 1525
21. Huascar Titu Tupac 33 1500
22 Manco Capac III Amauta 50 1450
23 Ticac Pupac 30 1425
24. Paullu Tutu Capac 19 1400
25. Cayo Manco Amauta II 30 1375
26. Marasco Patchacutec 40 1325
27. Paullu Atauchi Capac -- 1300
28. Lluqui Yupanqui 14 1275
29. Lluqui Ticac 8 1265
30. Capac Yupanqui I 50 1225
31, Tupac Yupanqui I 18 1200
32. Manco Auqui Tupac Patchacutee 50 1150
33. Sinchi Apusqui Huarma
Huiracocha 40 1120
34. Auqui Quitu Atauchi 4 1100
35. Ayay Manco -- 1075
36. Huiracocha Capac 15 1060
37. Tchinchi Roca Amauta 20 1040
38. Tupac Amaru Amauta 25 1020
39. Capac Raymi Amauta -- 1000
This ruler instituted certain festivals in his name. He is parallel
with the time of Odin I of Denmark and of Solomon. He was the
mainspring behind the development of what archaeologists call the
Cultist Era. This Era is illustrative of the contact between Old and
New World during certain significant ages.
40. IllJa Tupac 3 --
41. Tupac Amauta 3 990
42. Huanacauri I 4 --
43. Toca Corca Apu Capac 45 960
44. Huampar Xayri Tupac I 32 925
45. Hinac Huillja Amauta Pachacuti 35 900
46. Capac Yupanqui II Amauta 35 860
47. Huampar Xayri Tupac II -- 830
48. Cayo Manqui Auqui 3 820
49. Hinac Huillja 30 800
50. Inti Capac Amauta 30 760
51. Ayar Manco Capac -- 730
52. Yahuar Huquiz, gives his 30 710
name to five intercalary
days added to calendar to
adjust spring equinox
53. Capac Titu Yupanqui 23 680
54. Tupac Curi I Amauta 39 640
55. Tupac Curi II 40 600
56. Huillcanota Amauta 60 540
57. Tupac Yupanqui II 43 500
58. Illja Tupac Capac 4 --
59. Titu Raymi Cozque 31 460
60. Huqui Nina Auqui 43 430
61. Manco Capac IV 23 390
62. Cayo Manco Capac 20 365
63. Sinchi Ayar Manco 7 360
A major invasion occurs in his reign from the Southeast. This
begins the true Florescent Era, as labeled by archaeologists.
64. Huaman Tacko Amauta 5 355
65. Titu Yupanqui Pachacuti II -- --
66. Titu Huaman Quitu -- 325
67. Cozque Huaman Titu -- --
68. Cuis Manco 50 275
69. Huillja Titu 30 240
70. Xayri Tupac 40 200
71. Tupac Yupanqui III 25 175
72. Huayna Tupac I 37 140
73. Huanacauri II 10 130
74. Huillja Huaman 60 70
75. Huaman Capac 40 30
76. Paullu Raymi 19 10
77. Manco Capac V Amauta -- 10
78. Auqui Atau Huillja 35 40
79. Manco Titu Capac 32 90
80. Huayna Tupac II 50 140
81. Tupac Cauri Pachacuti -- 170
82. Arantial -- 200
83. Huari Titu Capac -- 225
84. Huispa Titu Auqui 18 250
85. Toco Cozque -- 270
86. Ayar Manco 22 290
87. Cuntur Roca -- 320
88. Amaru -- 340
From here on
89. Sinchi Roca 41
90. Illja Toca 62 406-468
91. Lluqui Yupanqui 45 468-513
92. Roca Titu 25 513-538
93. Inti Mayta Capac Pachacuti 27 538-565
This concludes the Pre-Inca Era. Notice that when Montesino's
account is properly begun at Babel it is in perfect harmony with the
time element in the next era.
THE INCA RULERS
The succeeding chart illustrates the story of the great Inca
period. It begins in 565. Is it significant that this is the year of a
major movement of peripheral peoples out of the British Isles in the
days of Gildas? ("Ency. Brit.", art. "Cave," in eleventh ed.) The Incas
were of a complexion much lighter than their subjects.
The comments in the following section may be verified in J. A.
Mason's "Ancient Civilizations of Peru", p. 110.
Inca Kings Lengths of Reign Dates
or Until an Heir According
Chosen to Sarmiento
Beginning of Expansionist Period
1. Manco Capac 100 565-665
2. Sinchi Roca 19 665-684
According to Garcilassan's
account this king begins
3. Lloqui Yupanqui 111 684-795
Extended domain to Lake Titicaca.
4. Mayta Capac 110 795-905
Increases realm to Tiahuanaco
and headwaters of coastal
rivers. He is the first great
5. Capac Yupanqui 89 905-994
Troubles develop toward end
of his reign.
The succeeding kings belong to the Urbanist period.
6. Inca Roca 103 994-1097
Near total collapse at
beginning of his reign. He
subjugates areas only 20
miles from capital of Cuxco.
7. Titu Cuisi Hualpa 96 1097-1193
8. Viracocha Inca 101 1193-1294
Wars with Chanca, Lupaca and
Colla. His own capital besieged.
Inca Urcon, dethroned -- --
The succeeding Incas belong to the Imperialist period.
9. Inca (Cusi) Yupanqui
Pachacuti 103 1294-1397
Begins conquests in the
vicinity of Cuzco.
10. Tupac Inca Yupanqui 67 1397-1464
11 Huayna Capac 60 1464-1524
12. Huascar Inca 7 1524-1531
13. Atahuallpa 2 1531-1533
Tupac Huallpa -- 1533
14. Manco Inca, crowned by
Pizarro 11 1533-1544
Xayri Tupac 17 1544-1561
Quispe Yupanqui 8 1561-1569
Tupac Amaru 3 1569-1572
With this restoration, though partly incomplete, the early history
of South America comes into its proper place in World History.
ANCIENT PERSIA AND TURKESTAN
One thousand years of Persian history is missing from today's
history textbooks. Most writers begin their account of Persia about the
time of Cyrus the Great. A few archaeological notes usually precede the
story. But the real history of Persia (or Iran) for a thousand years
before Cyrus has been deliberately removed from history books.
EARLY KINGS OF PERSIA
Persia, the modern Iran, like most other nations, has preserved
its history from early times. Traditions and legends have no doubt been
added along the way. But the main framework and sequence of events is
so clearly preserved that no doubt about the facts need exist.
Of course there is a reason why early Persian history is rejected.
It includes several Biblical heroes! That alone, in the eyes of modern
interpreters of history, is enough to condemn any record.
Early Persian history has been preserved not only by Persian and
Arabic writers, but in a few rare translations into modern languages.
Perhaps the most complete is Shea's "Early Kings of Persia." A less
complete account may be recovered from D'Herbelot's "Bibliotheque
Orientale." More complete is the analysis in "Universal History," Vol.
Before recounting in brief the history of Persia, it would be well
to compare, below, the table of rulers from Mirkhond, the Persian
historian, with that of other oriental authors. One is immediately
aware of figures that at first glance seem preposterous. But each one
has significant meaning. They are not all lengths of reign -- several
are based on time lapses since the beginning of important eras. Without
these long figures, it would not be possible to restore Persian
Table of Persian Rulers From Mirkhond From Other
Dynasty or Pishdadians or
1. Kajomaras or Cajoumaras 40 560
2. Siamek, a son, slain after -- --
very brief reign.
Kajomaras resumes kingdom -- 30
An interregnum. -- 200
3. Hushang 50 50
4. Tamurash, said to be 30 --
grandson of Hushang
5. Giemshid or Giamschid, 30 30
descendant of Kajomaras
6. Dahak or Zahak (Zoak), -- 1000
7. Aphridun, or Feridoun, son -- 120
8. Manugjahr or Manougeher 120 500
surnamed Phirouz; son of
Irege, son of Feridoun
9. Nodar or Nudar, a son 7 7
10. Apherasiab or Afrasiab, 12 12
descendant of Tur, the
son of Feridoun
11. Zaab, Zab, Zoub, or -- 30
Bazab, heir of the house
12. Gustasp, or Kischtasp, -- 30 or 20
son of Zaab
Dynasty of Kaianites
1. Kaikobad 100 120
2. Kaikaus 150 150
3. Kaikhosru or Kaihosru 60 60
4. Lohrasp or Lohorasb 120 120
5. Gushtasp, Gustasp or 120 120
Kishtasp, son of Lohrasp
6 Ardshir, surnamed Bahaman, 112 112
grandson of Gustasp
7. Queen Homai 32 32
8. Darab I (Persian spelling 4 14
9. Darab II 14 --
After him came Iscander Ben
Filoukous -- Alexander the
son of Philip.
The time element at the close of this list is clear. The days of
Alexander the Great have been reached. Darab II is Persian king Darius
III Codomannus. He was slain in 330, after Alexander overthrew his
empire. But most of the preceding names in the table of kings are not
those found in history books. The answer is that Persia's last king was
not a direct descendant of the great Persian kings of history. This
table of Persian royal names is an account of another branch of royalty
-- the family of Darius Codomannus.
Once we know the date of Darab II -- his reign ends in 330 -- it
is possible to restore the whole list, if we just take the figures
exactly as they are. The following chart is the restoration of the
Dynasty of the Kaianites -- combining both Mirkhond and other oriental
THE SECOND RACE
The Second Race, or Lengths of Time Dates
Dynasty of the Kaianites
l. Kaikobad 100 1042-942
He reigned 20 years with (or 120) (1062-942)
2. Kaikaus, grandson of 150 942-792
The 150 years represent the
duration of time since the
death of his grandfather.
3. Kaikhosru, grandson of 60 792-732
He died without male heir.
4. Lohorasp, a near relative 120 732-612
Note that the year of his
death is 612 -- the date of
the fall of Nineveh.
Lohorasp was an ally of
Assyria. He joined with
the Assyrians in their
conquest of the Jews in
Palestine in the days of
king Manasseh. He perished
in 612 in a revolt which
carried Persia from the
Assyrian camp to that of
the Medes and Babylonians.
5. Gustasp, called Hystaspes 120 612-492
in Greek literature.
Nearly 30 years after he
came to power in a revolt
against his father, Gustasp
was involved in a war with
the inhabitants of Turkestan
and Scythia. This is the
struggle which occurred in
584 between Media and Scythia
(see Vol. I of the Compendium).
The long reigns assigned to
this family may reflect the
practice of choosing the
youngest heir. In several
instances a grandson is the
successor. Or the figures
may represent reckoning by
eras and may not distinguish
the separate reigns of father
and son, who may also have
had the same throne names.
6. Ardshir Bahaman, surnamed 112 492-380
Dirazdest -- the long-
handed. He is the
of history. Here again
the assigned length extends
beyond the life of the king,
and is in fact the practice
of reckoning in eras.
7. Queen Homai daughter of 32 380-348
Ardshir according to most
8. Darab I, her son, say the 4 348-344
eastern traditions, by her (or 14) (358-344)
own father. The date 358
is that of Artaxerxes III
Ochus of history texts.
9. Darab II, slain in 330 14 344-330
THE FIRST RACE
Persian historians commonly refer to the early judges and kings of
their land as the "first race" and the "second race." The second has
just been restored. The first is now possible to date. Its last king or
Judge, Gustasp, ended his reign in 1042, at which time he was succeeded
by Kaikobad of the "second race." With 1042 as ending date, the reign
of Kajomaras would begin in 1741. Observe how all these figures fit as
pieces of a puzzle.
The First Race of Lengths of Time Dates
1. Kajomaras, a descendant 40 1741-1701
of Aram (560) (2261-1701)
What occurred in 2261? What
era does this mark? It is
108 years after the flood.
Now check Italian history.
There we notice that 2261 is
the date when Noah began to
send out colonies to inhabit
new areas of the world. This
separation of the land to
various families and races
is what Nimrod rebelled
against. So Persian history
confirms what has already
been established from ancient
Italian records preserved
among the Etruscans.
Note that 1741 marks the end of the sole reign of Senwosre III or
Sesostris, the great Egyptian conqueror of the Near East -- including
Shortly after ascending the
throne he was slain (1701).
Kajomaras returns to power 30 1701-1671
After Kajomaras no supreme rulers in Persia are recorded for a
space of 200 years -- 1671-1471. This period of Interregnum has an
important bearing on the history of the Tatars. And also on Assyria
(see Vol. I of Compendium).
3. Hushang, surnamed Pishdud 50 1471-142I
(meaning judge). Hushang
began the Dynasty of judge-
kings -- the Pishdadians,
Who was this man? His
Persian name -- Hushang --
would be Husham in Hebrew.
Is there in the Biblical
record a Husham living
about the time of Moses
and Joshua? Indeed there
is! Turn to the record in
Genesis 36:31 and 34: "And
these are the kings that
reigned in the land of Edom,
before there reigned any king
over the children of Israel
of Temani reigned ...." This
Husham or Hushang, famous
in the Biblical record, is
the Temanite king who ruled
over the children of Esau or
Edom. His native land was in
Persia -- proving how early
certain of the children of
Esau were moving out of the
land of Edom by the Red Sea
into the land of Persia and
Turkestan, Husham was king
over the widely scattered
tribes of Edom. He was the
great ruler who ordered Moses
not to cross his territory in
the year 1448-1447.
But Husham's is not the
only name that will appear
in Persian history from this
list in Genesis 36.
4. Tahmurash 30 1421-1391
5. Giemshid 30 1391-1361
6. Dahak, a famous man out of
Arabia who came to power in
the last years of Giemshid.
He drove the latter into
exile, hunted him down when
he discovered Giemshid had
a son, and finally slew him.
What do the 1000 years represent?
There is only one possible
explanation. He came to the
Persian throne 1000 years
after the Flood -- 2369-1369.
In 1369 he drove Giemshid
from the throne. The time
of Dahak's power in Persia is
therefore 8 years -- 1369-
1361. In 1361 a son of
Giemshid, now three years old,
came to the throne with the
death of Dahak.
7. Alphidun 120 1361-1241
The new king lived 123 years.
He married the daughter of
Dahak. He divided his realm
between his sons. To Tur he
gave Turkestan. To Irege,
son of a Persian woman,
the realm of Persia was
assigned. From Tur the
Temanite inhabitants of
Turkestan took the name
Turan or Turk. In the family
quarrels which followed, all
the sons of Alphidun were
slain, and the kingship
passed to Manougeher, son
8. Manougeher, surnamed Phirouz 120 1241-1121
From him the people of Iran
called Persians. Phirouz
is the Perses of Greek tradition
who lived at the time
of the war with Troy!
But what of the figure
500? Answer: Manougeher
came to power in 1241,
exactly 500 years after
Kajomaras came to the
royal estate -- 1741-1241.
9. Nodar 7 1121-1114
10. Apherasiab 12 1114-1102
He was a great Khan of
Turkestan, a descendant of
Tur, and joined Persia with
Tartary. Constant rebellion
led at length to the establishment
of a descendant of Kajomaras
on the Persian throne.
11. Zaab or Bazab 30 1102-1072
Who was this Zaab? Turn to
Genesis 36:39. Hadar, king
of Edom, married "Mehetabel,
the daughter of Matred, the
daughter of Me-zahab" ("Jewish
Publ. Soc."). (Mezahab is
the KJV spelling.) Bazab is
but an altered and shortened
spelling of the Hebrew
Me-zahab (the letters "b"
and "m" being easily
interchangeable in Indo
European tongues -- cf.
Emher for Eber in Irish).
Hadar is the last king in Edom
who began to reign before Saul.
The chronology of Persia is
in perfect harmony with the
Here again is proof that
the Bible is the foundation of
knowledge. Without the list
of rulers of Edom in Genesis 36,
it would not be possible to
understand fully who the early
rulers of Persia were.
12. Gustasp or Kischtasp 30 1072-1042
The 20 years of certain (or 20) (1062-1042)
oriental writers is the
duration of the joint reign
with Kaikobad. Persian
historians declare that
Kishtasp was the son of a
Jewess of the tribe of
Benjamin. This was the
very time of the dominance
of Benjamin in Israel -- and
especially the family of Kish,
the father of Saul. The reign
of Gustasp was put to an end
by struggles with Apherasiab
of Turkestan. In this time
of national struggle, an heir
of the line of Nodar and Zaab
established Persian independence
from the Turks and founded the
Dynasty of the Kaianites or
the "second race" of Persian
And that restores the amazing 1000 years of missing Persian
TURKESTAN, TURKS AND MONGOLS
In the vast stretches north of Persia live a medley of peoples.
Mongols, Tatars, Turks, Turkomen, and Persians, among many others. The
history of this area is intimately connected with ancient Persia. The
nomadic tribes inhabiting the region have not preserved any
chronological framework of their past history, but their line of great
Khans has sufficient parallels that the main events of Turkestan or
Eastern Scythia may be ascertained.
The Bible labels this vast area the land of Gog (see Ezekiel 38).
Gog was a descendant of Japheth. The western half of these vast reaches
belongs today to the Soviet Union. The eastern part is Mongolia and a
part of China (Sinkiang Province). The whole area is called Turkestan
The word Turk has in the Turkic or Mongolian languages the meaning
of "strong warrior." The Mongoloid Turkic people trace their ancestry
back to Turk, the adopted son of Japheth. (The Mongoloid Turks are to
be distinguished from the Caucasian Osmanli Turks of modern Turkey --
the sons of Teman who acquired the name Turk from living in that
geographic area.) The son of Turk in Tatar history was Taunak Khan.
(Khan means ruler.) He was, at least in part, an earlier contemporary
of Kajomaras of Persia. Taunak is affirmed to have lived 240 years,
according to Abu'l Ghazi Bahadur Khan's "Genealogical History of the
Tatars," published in 1730 in London. This is well within the ages
listed in Genesis for the patriarchs immediately after the Flood.
Taunak was succeeded in order by Jelza Khan, Dibbakui Khan and
Kajuk Khan -- the latter two having long reigns. The son of Kajuk was
Alanza Khan or Ilingeh Khan. His was a period of growing prosperity and
luxury. He was the father of Tatar Khan, from whom the Tatars trace
their name, and of Mogul Khan, from whom the Moguls or Mongols trace
The son of Mogul Khan was Kara Khan. In his day there was a rapid
spread of idolatry, declare the Mohammedan Tatar historians. Hushang of
Persia was ruler in Persia.
In the days of Kara Khan, after the Exodus of Israel out of Egypt,
his son Oguz or Ogus Khan revolted against the idolatry of his father
(see the "Universal History", Vol. XX). Later, Ogus, after 72 years of
war, created a vast Mongol Empire. He subjected Cathay (part of China),
Tashkent, Samarkand and all Turkestan, Kashmir, part of Armenia and
Iran. Iran at this time was without unified leadership during the reign
of Giemshid (1391-1361). Oguz Khan carried his conquests (Diodorus of
Sicily II, 43) to Egypt. Interestingly, this is the time of the Hyksos
rule in Egypt. And one of the Hyksos rulers had the name of Khayan or
Khan. This king could be none other than Oguz Khan. His 116 year reign
from Tatar history is therefore 1392-1276.
Ogus Khan was succeeded by Kiun Khan (1276-1206). His name means
the "sun". The history of Persia indicated that hereafter the kings of
Persia dominated the accessible steppes of Turkestan. This would be the
time of Alphidun, who set his son Tur over Turkestan. He was followed
by Apherasiab. In order there followed Juldus Khan, Mengli Khan, Tengis
Khan and Il Khan. In the days of Il Khan (in the 600's B.C.) the
Tatars warred against the Mongols and nearly obliterated them. Il had a
son Kajan who survived the struggle. For 400 years the Mongols
disappear from the pages of Tatar history into the vastnesses of the
mountains of Asia.
Now to return to the time of Alanza Khan and his son Tatar Khan.
The Tatars in the Soviet Union trace their early Khans from Tatar the
brother of Mogul. From Tatar descended Buka, Jalanzak and Ettala Khan.
Ettala's son Attaisis Khan fought bloody wars -- in the days of Ogus
Khan of the Mongols. He was followed by Orda, Baydu and Siuntz Khan.
The latter in a grand alliance destroyed the Mongol power.
After this great victory the Tatars split up under petty rulers
and have left us but few names of their rulers. Based on the number of
generations this victory over the Mongols occurred in the 600's.
After multiplying in the mountains bordering on Mongolia, the
Moguls finally rose to power in the late 200's. In another fifty years
they challenged the Tatars, conquered them and became the masters of
much of eastern Scythia.
The Tatars and Mongols - descendants of Turk whom Japheth adopted
as his son - preserved for posterity the names of over 20 Khans (see
Vol. XX of "Universal History") who ruled Mongolia and adjacent
territory until the twelfth century of the present era, Then it was
that the Mongols burst forth on the world, ravaged Asia and plunged
with terrible swiftness west into the heart of Europe under Jenghis
THE HISTORY OF ARMENIA
The principal source of Armenian history is that of Moses Khoren,
a celebrated writer of the fifth century. In part his material is
derived from the books of Mar-Abas Catina, a learned Aramean of the
second century B.C. Modern archaeology provides additional information
beginning with the period of the late Assyrian Empire.
Armenian history has been treated in much the same manner as
Persian history. Prior to the Assyrian period all is rejected without
being examined to see if it corresponds with the parallel accounts of
Armenian history begins with the account of Haik or Haig, the son
of Togarmah, the son of Gomer. What's wrong with Biblical characters
suddenly appearing on the scene shortly after the Flood? Nothing --
unless one doesn't want to acknowledge the plain facts of the Bible and
history. Historians acknowledge the land about Armenia, as late as the
days of Shalmaneser the Great, was known as the land of Togarmah. of
course, that is from archaeology!
Armenians descend from Aram, son of Shem (see Josephus).
Intermarriage between Togarmah's family and Aram's has undoubtedly
given rise to the unique character of the Armenians.
The following tables, prepared by Michael Chamich and St. Martin,
are taken from the "Collection des Historiens Anciens et Modernes de
l'Armenie" by Victor Langlois, Paris, 1880, vol. II, pp. 385-386.
PATRIARCHS OF ARMENIA
Kamer, Gomer, 37 2178-2141 Armais 40 1816-1776
son of Japheth
Togarmah 198 2141-1943 Amassia 32 1776-1744
Haik 81 1943-1862 Gegham 50 1744-1694
Armenak 46 1862-1816 Harma 31 1694-1663
Armenak, declares Issaverdenz, "with a large body of his people,
advanced a few days journey to the northeast," and colonized a new area
of the Armenian plateau. (Page 56 of "Armenia and the Armenians," Vol.
The family of Aram paralleled the family of Togarmah, rather than
succeeding it as most Armenian historians claim.
Aram, son of 58 2108-2050
Aram "was the first to raise the Armenian name to any degree of
renown." One of his "followers" was Mishag or Mishak. Certainly here we
have the family of Aram and his son Mash or Meshech of the Bible.
Ara the Handsome 26 2050-2024
Semiramis, Queen of Assyria, offered to marry Ara. He refused. And
in an ensuing battle between the Assyrians and Armenians, Ara perished.
Semiramis raised Garthos to the throne in his father's stead. Sometimes
his name is spelled Kardos.
During his day Semiramis and Ninyas struggled for the throne in
Assyria. She fled to the Armenian king. Out of gratitude for having
been placed on the throne, he raised an army and marched with Semiramis
against Ninyas Zames. Both Kardos and Semiramis were slain and Ninyas
came to the throne in 2006 in Assyria.
Kardos, called 18 2024-2006
Anoushavan 63 2006-1943
Anoushavan had no heir to the throne; submits to Assyria as do his
successors; he is succeeded by Haik in 1943.
Paret 50 1663-1613 Geghak 30 1228-1198
Arbak 44 1613-1569 Horo 3 1198-1195
Zavan 37 1569-1532 Zarmair, 12 1195-1183
slain by Achilles
Pharnas I 53 1532-1479 Interregnum 2 1183-1181
Sour 45 1479-1434 Shavarsh II 43 1181-1138
Havanak 30 1434-1404 Perch I 35 1138-1103
Vashtak 22 1404-1382 Arboun 27 1103-1076
Haikak I 18 1382-1364 Perch II 40 1076-1036
Ampak I 14 1364-1350 Bazouk 50 1036- 986
Arnak 17 1350-1333 Hoy 44 986- 942
Shavarsh I 6 1333-1327 Houssak 31 942- 911
Norair 24 1327-1303 Ampak II 27 911- 884
Vestam 13 1303-1290 Kaipak 45 884- 839
Kar 4 1290-1286 Pharnouas I 33 839- 806
Gorak 18 1286-1268 Pharnas II 40 806- 766
Hrant I 25 1268-1243 Skaiordi 17 766- 749
Endzak 15 1243-1228
KINGS OF ARMENIA
Parouyr, 48 749- 701 Haikak II 36 606- 570
frees Armenia from Assyria
Erouand I 4 570- 566
Hratchia 22 701- 679
Tigran I 45 566- 521
Pharnouas, 13 679- 666
the second Vahagn 25 521- 496
Pachouych 35 666- 631 Aravan 20 496- 476
Kornak 8 631- 623 Nerseh 35 476- 441
Phavos 17 623- 606 Zarah 46 441- 395
Armog 9 395- 386 Neoptolemus 2 323- 321
Bagam 14 386- 372 Hrant II, or 4 321- 317
Orontes, subject to Greeks
Van 20 372- 352
Ardoates 33 317- 284
Vahe 23 352- 329
(20) (352-332) Hrant II, or 45 284- 239
died in war with Alexander Orontes
Artavazanes 50 239-189
Mihram 6 329- 323
a Persian appointed by Artaxias 30 189-159
Artavazd 10 159-149
Kurkjian's "History of Armenia" may be consulted for succeeding
Armenian history commences with a settlement of colonists in 2247,
seven years after the episode at Babel. These colonists were subject to
the rulers in Babylonia for 139 years. They gained their independence
in 2108. This date is traditionally assigned to Haik, but rightfully
belongs to Aram. Armenian history clearly places the family of Aram
contemporary with Semiramis and Ninyas. Since Togarmah settled Armenia
earlier than Aram, the line of Aram was inserted after the line of
Gomer. It should have been made parallel. The family of Gomer continued
down to the time of Paret in 1663. Note that the period assigned to
Gomer and Togarmah in Armenian history corresponds with Italian and
Spanish history. The white branch of the family was settling in Europe,
while the Oriental branch migrated eastward.
It appears that Ul, the son of Aram who settled Armenia, is Ara --
the "r" replacing the "l".
TROJAN MIGRATION TO FRANCE
After Troy fell, in 1181, the populace in the conquered regions
fled from the Greeks to various parts of Europe. One of these groups
was led by Aeneas and finally reached Italy. But, there were other
groups who left Troy after the First Trojan War.
Another group of Trojan refugees was led by Francio the son of the
ill-fated Hector, and heir to the line of Samothes in Gaul. These fled
to the northern shore of the Black Sea, then returned to Isauria in
Asia Minor, from where they migrated to Pannonia and then on to Western
Europe. From these Trojans is descended the house of the Dukes of
Brabant (an old province embracing parts of modern Belgium and the
Netherlands). From this Assyro-Judaic family came Charlemagne, the
first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation.
A complete list of these Trojan rulers, from Hector down to
Charlemagne, is found in the work by Jhr. C. A. Rethaan Macaré entitled
"Oude Kronijk van Brabant", in the "Codex Diplomaticus Neerlandicus,"
series 2, part 3, published by Het Historisch Genootschap te Utrecht,
Utrecht, Holland in 1855.
The chronology starts with 1181 and continues right down the line
without complications till Silvius Brabon II, who begins to reign in
732. The beginning and end of each reign is synchronized with
contemporary Biblical history, which, incidentally, is presented in its
correct chronology down to a period long after the dividing of the
Between Silvius Brabon II and Troylus II (370-331) complications
are introduced. The author will state a certain figure for the length
of the reign, yet this will completely disagree with the length of
reign obtained through his cross references to contemporary Roman
history. Silvius Brabon II, for example, is stated to have reigned 60
years. Yet, the cross references of the beginning and end of his reign
in terms of Roman history show that he reigned only 32 years. The
difficulty is readily overcome when we realize that the Trojan rulers
of this period shared the throne jointly with either a successor or a
predecessor. The author preserved the correct lengths of individual
reigns only in the cross references to contemporary Roman history.
Charlemagne, too, it must be remembered, ruled jointly with his
The recording of joint reigns ceases after Troylus II and the
chronology again becomes uniform. Troylus II ruled jointly with his
successor, Priamus VI. It will be noticed, below, that even in the
figures for his sole reign, the last year overlaps with the first year
of his successor. This is stated in the author's cross references to
contemporary Roman and Greek history.
Under the Princes and Dukes of Brabant there are two short
interregnums which become apparent from the chronology, one in A.D.
456-459 and the other in A.D. 714-715. We must remember that this is
the story of Brabant though the individuals concerned had other
dominions and offices as well. Charlemagne, for example, was a Duke of
Brabant, but he was also King of the Franks and Holy Roman Emperor at
the same time. The short interregnums therefore mean nothing more than
that the title to the dukedom was vacant for that period of time. The
ruler himself was usually alive, but simply did not claim the dukedom.
This is only a matter of internal politics and does not affect the
chronology of the history as a whole.
TROJANS KINGS OF ISAURIA
Kings Length of Reign Dates
1. Francio, son of Hector, 21 1181-1160
flees from Troy with
his brother Turcus to 10 1160-1150
Maeotis, where they
rule 21 years. From
there they migrate to
Isauria, where Francio
drives out his brother
Turcus and reigns 10
2. Hector II, marries 31 1150-1119
daughter of king of
3. Troylus 56 1119-1063
4. Francio II, whose brother --
Priam led a migration
of Trojans from Isauria
to Pannonia, where they
remained till expelled
TROJAN KINGS OF SICAMBRIA AND PANNONIA
Kings Length of Reign Dates
1. Priamus II, son of 27 1063-1036
Francio II, commences
his reign on the Danube
in the 118th year after
the fall of Troy,
builds city Sycambria.
2. Eneas, marries his 57 1036- 979
aunt, the daughter of
Francio II of Isauria.
3. Priamus III, had a 14 979- 965
4. Silvius Brabon, had six 49 965- 916
sons. Wandalus settled
among the Vandals, Polex
gave his name to Poland,
Russo went into Russia,
Himus migrated to
Maeotis, Frixius went to
Frisia, and Brabon
Silvius inherited his
5. Brabon Silvius I 35 916- 881
6. Hector III, in whose 34 881- 847
days six Sicambrian
heroes or rulers,
led by one Yber,
migrated overland from
Sicambria to France
with about 4000 men.
They built a city and
called it Paris, after
the son of Priam.
Themselves they called
7. Francio Brabon, had 76 847- 771
a son Troylus and
a daughter Ylia.
She became, according
to the author, the
mother of Romulus and
8. Troylus I 32 771- 739
9. Brabon II 7 739- 732
10. Silvius Brabon II 32 732- 700
joint (60) (732- 672)
11. Hector Brabon, had 37 700- 663
two sons, Demophon
Demophon went to Rome
where he married the
daughter of Ancus
Marcius and had by her a
son called Tarquinus,
who became king of Rome.
12. Palamides, had three 52 663- 611
sons, Deyphebus, joint (61) (672- 611)
Parriis and Brabon.
Deyphebus went to
Dacia, Parriis to some
islands in the Pontus.
13. Brabon III, had two sons, 57 611- 554
Priam and Dyomedeus. The
latter went to Africa
and built there a
14. Priamus IV 32 554- 522
joint (50) (572- 522)
15. Philymeus,had three 30 552- 522
Archadius and Macedo.
From Macedo came the
migrated to Arcadia
in Greece and became
the first duke of
that land. Julius
Caesar is descended
16. Priamus V 20 522- 502
17. Brabon IV 50 502- 452
joint with son (11) (452- 441)
18. Laomedon 24 452- 428
19. Pelius, had two 58 428- 370
sons, Troylus and joint (68) (441- 373)
latter sailed with
his followers to
20. Troylus II 39 370- 331
joint (42) (373- 331)
21. Priamus VI 7 332- 325
22. Francio III 9 325- 316
23. Brabon V 4 316- 312
24. Silvius Brabon III 21 312- 291
25. Brabon Troylus VI 33 291- 258
26. Brabon VII 22 258- 236
27. Brabon VIII 16 236- 220
28. Priamus VII 28 220- 192
29. Hector IV 31 192- 161
30. Brabon IX 4 161- 157
31. Priamus VIII 19 157- 138
32. Francio IV, had 14 20 138- 118
sons and 7 daughters.
With him the account
of the kings of
Pannonia ceases, although
the line continued
to reign till the
time of Gratian.
"Brabon junior," the youngest son of Francio IV. He entered the
services of his relative the duke of Arcadia in Greece, and was
rewarded for his distinguished service with a wife of noble birth. Ten
years after the death of his father, his wife gave birth to a son who
was named Brabon Silvius. At the same time Julius Caesar was born to
the duke of Arcadia.
"Brabon Silvius" accompanied Julius Caesar in the Roman conquest
of Gaul. Julius Caesar conquered the kingdom of Agrippina (Cologne),
killed the king, and sent the king's sister Silvana to his father the
duke of Arcadia.
At that time there stayed with the duke of Arcadia a man named
"Karolus." His father, also called Karolus, was a powerful figure and
leader of a military division at Nijmegen. He was born of the old
Trojan line, being the son of a certain Pharamunt who had 14 sons. This
must be none other than Francio IV (138-118).
"Karolus," the son of Karolus, received a bad reputation because
of his licentious life. So his father sent him away from home to the
duke of Arcadia. Here, according to the Chronicle, he married the
duke's daughter "Zwana," who, upon their return to the Low Countries,
gave birth to a son called "Octavianus". This Octavianus later became
Roman Emperor Augustus.
Karolus junior also had two daughters, Octaviana and Zwana. Zwana
was given by her uncle Julius Caesar in marriage to Brabon Silvius.
After the death of Karolus, Julius Caesar adopted Octavianus. The
kingdom of Agrippina he gave to Brabon Silvius.
KINGS OF AGRIPPINA
King Length of Reign Dates
1. Brabon Silvius
2. Karolus I 91 B.C. 53- 39 A.D.
3. Karolus II 41 39- 80
4. Karolus III 65 80- 145
5. Karolus IV 10 145- 155
6. Karolus V 105 155- 260
7. Karolus VI 3 260- 263
8. Karolus VII, conquered 62 263- 325
Sweden, Norway, Denmark
9. Brabon 41 325- 366
10. Karolus VIII 12 366- 378
11. Angisus, during whose
reign, in 378 A.D.,
Gratian drove the
Sycambri from Pannonia.
They came to the lower
Rhine under their leader
Priamus. Angisus fought
Gratian, but lost 30,000
men and was captured.
He spent seven years as
a captive of the Romans,
being finally liberated
by Theodosius upon the
latter's accession to
the throne. Maximus, a
rival emperor, devastated
parts of northern Gaul,
and then gave these to
Brabon, the six-year-
old eldest son of Angisus.
This Brabon thus became
the first prince of
Brabant, and his
position was subsequently
recognized by Emperor
had another son, Karolus,
who succeeded him in the
12. Karolus IX was succeeded
by two other kings who
are not named. The last
was driven out by Franks,
who took over the kingdom
of Agrippina and made it
part of the Frankish realm.
PRINCES OF BRABANT
Ruler Length of Reign Dates
1. Brabon I, was made 32 424- 456
prince of Brabant in
the seventh year of
his life. He reigned
for 32 years after the
death of his father.
In his days Clodius,
king of the Franks,
destroyed the kingdoms
of Agrippina and
Thuringia, and annexed
Brabant. Brabon and
his descendants became
loyal servants of the
Frankish kings. (456- 459)
2. Brabon II 60 459- 519
3. Brabon III 51 519- 570
4. Karolomannus, the last 45 570- 615
prince. After his death
Brabant became a dukedom.
DUKES OF BRABANT
Ruler Length of Reign Dates
1. Pippinus of Landen, (35) (612- 647)
ruled three years jointly or 32 615- 647
with his father, becomes
mayor of the palace to
the Frankish king.
2. Grimoaldus, son of Pepin. 13 647- 660
3. Angisus, husband of 25 660- 685
Begga, daughter of Pepin.
This Angisus was son of
Arnulph, Bishop of Metz,
who was the son of
Arnold, the son of
was married to
of Lothair I (Clothair),
king of Austrasia and
4. Pippinus II, of Heristal. 29 685- 714
5. Karolus Mertellus 26 715- 741
6. Karolomanus, renounced 6 741- 747
his dukedom, entered a
monastery in 6th year
7. Pippinus III "the 21 747- 768
Short," son of joint (27) (741- 768)
By the time
Pippinus III came to
power, his inheritance
included not only
Brabant, but also
and Provence. In 752
he was elected King of
the Franks, and
reigned till his death
8. Karolomannus, son of 3 768- 771
Pippinus, ruled jointly
with his brother
9. Karolus Magnus, 43 771- 814
assumed sole rule joint (46) (768- 814)
after his brother's
Roman Emperor in 800.
KINGS OF FRISIA
In 321 B.C. a line of princes migrated via India to the area of
northern Holland and northwestern Germany under their leader Friso.
Friso descended from Ragan or Reu (Gen. 11:19) according to "La Grande
Chronique ... de Hollande, Zelande" etc., p. 28. Friso was an
adventurer in the service of Alexander the Great. After being released
from service, he came with a group of settlers from the river Indus to
Europe. There he gained power (313) over the local counts by means of
intrigue. A descendant, Friso, became king in 287, commencing a
secondary line of rulers.
Name of King Length of Reign Dates
Friso I 68 313- 245
Adel I (94) 245- 151
Ubbo (80) 151- 71
Asinga Ascon or "Black Adel" (81) B.C. 71- 11 A D.
Diocarus Segon, joint during (35) A.D. 11- 46
imprisonment of his cousin
by Duke of Brabant.
Dibbaldus Segon (39) 46- 85
Tabbo (45) 85- 130
DUKES OF FRISIA
Ruler Length of Reign Dates
1. Asconius 43 130- 173
2. Adelboldus 14 173- 187
3. Titus Boiocalus 53 187- 240
4. Ubbo 59 240- 299
5. Haron Ubbo 36 299- 335
6. Odilbaldus 25 335- 360
7. Udolphus Haron 32 360- 392
After this Frisia again becomes a kingdom.
SECOND GROUP OF KINGS OF FRISIA
Name of King Length of Reign Dates
1. Richardus Uffo 43 392- 435
2. Odilbaldus 35 435- 470
3. Richoldus 63 470- 533
4. Beroaldus 57 533- 590
5. Adgillus I 82 590- 672
6. Radbodus I 51 672- 723
7. Adgillus II 14 723- 737
8. Gondobaldus 12 737- 749
9. Radbodus II 26 749- 775
Frisia, which had already been conquered by the Franks, was made
an integral part of the Frankish realm in 775 by Charlemagne. From that
time on it was ruled by dukes appointed by the Franks.
King lists are derived from "Hamconius" and "Oera Linda Boek."
TROJAN KINGS OF THE BELGIANS
While the descendants of Hector fled Troy and migrated to France,
Bavo led another group into Western Europe. This is the little known
story of the royal family that governed the Celts and the Belgians on
Archaeologists have found a vast cultural complex on the Rhine
River and its tributaries. The almost unknown account of this area is
preserved to us by Jacques de Guyse in his "Histore de Hainaut," a
French translation of his original Latin work of the thirteenth
century. (Hainaut is an ancient division of Belgium.)
Archaeologists, of course, admit that the Belgian people came from
the steppes of Eastern Europe. But just who the people of Belgium,
Holland, Frisia, Luxembourg and Northern France are, archaeology has no
answer. Yet we do not have to remain in ignorance. History has the
answer -- if scholars only had the wit to see. But as with so many
records, historians have rejected what they do not want to believe.
They have carefully hidden the Jewish-Trojan origin of the royal houses
of Western Europe.
The Belgian line commences with Bavo, the son of a sister of
Laomedon, king of Troy. Bavo was therefore a cousin of King Priam.
Following the fall of Troy a migration into Europe occurred along the
Danube. It reached the Rhine by 1179. Bavo, reported Jacques de Guyse,
"encountered with pleasure the descendants of the Assyrians who have
followed Trebeta, and who had been compatriots of the Trojans and
served the same deities" ("Table Generale de l'Histoire de Hainaut,"
II, page 388).
Here, in outline form, is Jacques de Guyse's account of the
Belgian rulers after the fall of Troy in 1181. Only the most important
details are included from the copious annals of Hainaut.
Priest-kings of the Length of Reign Dates
Bavo 13 1179-1166
Bavo the Belgian (Belginius) 44 1166-1122
Bavo the Lion (Leonius) 20 1122-1102
Bavo the Wolf (Lupinus) 50 1102-1052
Bavo Brunus 35 1052-1017
Brunehuldis 67 1017- 950
Bruno 36 950- 914
Aganippus I 29 914- 885
Aganippus II, husband of 50 885- 835
the British Queen Cordelia.
Audengerius 39 835- 796
Herisbrandus 20 796- 776
With Herisbrand ended the rule of the priest-kings over the
Belgians. Political upheaval forced a change in form of government and
brought a strong-willed, able warrior to the royal estate. In 776 --
the year of the first Olympiad in Greece -- Ursus, whose name means
"bearlike," obtained the throne and organized much of continental
Western Europe under his power. The Annals of Hainaut give the
following account of the kings of Belgium from 776-470.
King Length of Reign Dates
Ursus 34 776- 742
Ursa, daughter of Ursus 1 and a half 742- 741
Gurguncius (Gurgust in 28 741- 713
Sisillius (was made ruler 10 713- 703
over the Belgians while
his father governed the
Friscembaldus I 31 703- 672
Friscembaldus II 32 672- 640
Waringerus 15 640- 625
Leonius 10 625- 615
Leopardus I 5 615- 610
Leopardus II 30 610- 580
Leopardinus 32 580- 548
A political struggle for
two years left the
Belgians without a king.
Camber 20 546- 526
Melbrandus 15 526- 511
Blanduinus 6 511- 505
Suardus 15 505- 490
Leo 7 490- 483
Walacrinus 13 483- 470
There followed a number of dukes, annually elected, none of whose
names have come down in history. The last, Missenus, whose son came to
the throne in 386, is the only one whose name has been preserved. The
actual duration of power of the dukes over the provinces of Belgium is
traditionally given as 104 years -- evidently from 490 to 386. It
therefore appears that they came into prominence with the death of
Suardus. The new line of kings which existed until the Roman victory in
52 is as follows:
King Length of Reign Dates
Leo I 60 386- 326
Leo II 56 326- 270
Leo III 76 270- 194
Leo IV 96 194- 98
Leo V 20 98- 78
Goomerus 8 78- 70
Taynardus 14 70- 56
Usarius, slain by the Romans 4 56- 52
in Caesar's campaign of 52.
Andromadas 6 months 52
Rome crushed all Gaul and Belgium in 52.
KINGS OF THE CELTS IN GAUL
During the period that the priest-kings of the line of Bavo ruled
over the Belglans, the Celts in Europe were being governed by another
line. This line of kings sprang from Francus, scion of the House of
Troy, and last king of the Britons before the coming of Brutus.
Francus, according to the historian Freculphe (see Vol. 19 of
"Histoire de Hainaut," sec. cclxvii), began a line of kings that
ultimately ruled in Gaul. He originally turned over the government of
Britain to the Druids (until the time of Brutus). He supported the
Trojans against the Greeks. After the Greek victory, he continued to
govern the remnants of the Celts along the lower reaches of the Danube
basin. An outline of these little-known kings of the Celts is given
Kings of the Celts Length of Reign
Francus, his reign in 47 1216-1169
British records extends
over another 20 years of
Druidic rule before the
coming of Brutus in 1149.
Sicamber 51 1169-1118
Priam II 23 1118-1095
Hector. Hector had three 28 1095-1067
sons: Brabon, Polidamus
and Troilus. The last-
named succeeded him.
Troilus 22 1067-1045
Trogotus. Trogotus led (76) (1045- 969)
a migration near the
beginning of his reign
from Pannonia and Hungary
into Gaul. Observe how
this record accords with
the known migrations
about 1040 to Denmark
and Scotland and Sweden.
(The length of reign of
Trogotus is missing, but
may with great probability
be reconstructed as above.
The possible proof will
be noted later.)
Tongres 34 969- 935
Teuto 32 935- 903
Agrippa 28 903- 875
Ambrio 33 875- 842
Thuringus 34 842- 808
Camber 32 808- 776
The length of reign of Trogotus given above is indicated by the
following. The only known Agrippa in the history of Western Europe at
this period of history is the Trojan king of Alba in Italy. Not
uncommonly have the kings of Italy and Alba ruled Celtica in Gaul.
Jasius did in 1601-1551. A later Silvius came to the British throne
(see Vol. I of "Compendium" on British history). This Agrippa could
hardly be other than the Agrippa of Italy. Though sometimes assigned 41
years, Eusebius assigns him 40 years in Alba -- 915-875. If Eusebius'
figure is used, the 28-year reign of Agrippa over the Celts may be
dated 903-875. Then the reign of Camber would be 808-776. It makes
sense. Camber reigned until the very year (776) that Ursus began his
rule in Belgium. When Ursus came to power he demanded allegiance of
both Celts and Germans.
From this restoration it becomes clear that whoever controlled the
ancient city Trier (which was then part of Belgium) was in a favorable
position to dominate over the Celts of Gaul. A similar situation
occurred over 1500 years later when Charlemagne ruled all Western
Europe from Aachen, a city near Trier.
CHAPTER XII A
FURTHER MIGRATIONS TO FRANCE
The old Trojan House, of the line of Dardanus, was restored to
power after the Greek defeat at Troy in 1149. The Greeks did not
preserve the history of this restoration for two reasons. One, they did
not want to recall their defeat in 1149. Second, their writers
deliberately confused the history of Troy to make it appear that only
one great war occurred between the victorious Greek states and the
Trojans. This corruption of Trojan history was the direct result of
trying to make Greek history conform to a distorted account of Egyptian
The full story of the royal Trojan House that returned to power in
Troy has been preserved -- of all places -- in the records of the
Spanish Hapsburgs! The reason? The Hapsburgs were in fact lineal
descendants of the House of Troy!
A complete list of Trojan rulers after the fall of Troy in 1181
may be found in the original Spanish work by Bartholome Gutierrez
entitled: "Historia del estado presente y antiguo, de la mui noble y
mui leal ciudad de Xerez de la Frontera." It was published in Xerez,
Spain in 1886.
A son of Priam, during that fateful 10-year war which ended in
1181, was named Helenus (See "Lempriere's Classical Dictionary," art.
"Helenus".) Through him the royal line was preserved in the Near East.
Helenus was given, by the Greeks, a part of Epirus. After 1149 his
descendants captured control of Troy from the Greeks and the Jewish
House of Dardanus was once again restored to Troy. The Spanish history
records the following names of his descendants who governed Troy until
the Third Trojan War which ended the city in 677.
NOTE: To view the four figures placed here, see these files in the
Princes of Troy (with the common Latin endings)
1. Zenter, son of Helenus 9. Zaberian
and grandson of Priam.
2. Francus 10. Plaserius II
3. Esdron 11. Antenor I
4. Zelius 12. Trianus or Priam II
5. Basavelian I 13. Helenus II
6. Plaserius I 14. Plesron II
7. Plesron I 15. Basavelian II
16. Alexander -- the Paris of the last war against Troy. There were
about 17 generations (including Helenus) in somewhat over five
centuries or approximately 30 years per generation during this period.
Members of the Trojan royal family and most of the population fled to
the northern shores of the Black Sea in eastern Europe after 677.
For the next two and a third centuries after 677 (the date of the
final fall of Troy in a third war) there were the following 12
generations -- averaging about 21 years between generations. None of
these men were kings in the strict sense until Antenor, who died in
445. The genealogy of the Jewish Trojan House continues as follows:
1. Priam III, son of 8. Marcomir
Alexander or Paris.
2. Gentilanor 9. Priam IV
3. Almadius 10. Helenus IV
4. Dilulius 11. Antenor II, who assumed
kingly power among the
5. Helenus III refugees from Troy in
6. Plasserius III
7. Dilulius II 12. Marcomir
But, before we continue with Marcomir, the son of Antenor, another
part of the story should be told. The 8th century anonymous "Frankish
Chronicle" (De Rebus Francorum) states that after the fall of Troy in
1181 about 12,000 Trojans fled by ship across the Black Sea to the
mouth of the Tanais. From there they spread to the Maeotic Swamps and
as far as the borders of Pannonia.
This account agrees very well with the report of Dionysius of
Halicarnassus in his "Roman Antiquities," I, 46, 47, who states that
after the fall of Troy "... a larger number escaped than were taken
prisoner ... the Achaeans, intent on capturing the citadel, were giving
no thought to the pursuit of the multitude who were escaping from the
city .... Aeneas abandoned the palace; and opening the gates he marched
forth with the rest of the fugitives in good order ... they were joined
not only by the inhabitants of Dardanus ... but by the whole populace
of Ophyrnium .... this force of the Trojans became a very large one."
In other words, a large number of people escaped.
Dionysius goes on to state that they obtained permission from the
Greeks to travel about unmolested in order to find a new country in
which to settle. Aeneas headed to the Greek coast near Thessalonika,
and from there southwards to the Mediterranean and Italy. But others
took a different route. "... Ascanius, his eldest son, with some of the
allies, chiefly Phrygians, (went) to the country of Dascylitis (near
the Bosphorus) .... But Ascanius did not tarry there for any length of
time ...." He returned to the site of Troy and tried to reestablish the
Here Dionysius breaks off the account about Ascanius. We know,
however, that Ascanius did not remain at the site of Troy, for Virgil
and others report him as being with his father Aeneas in Italy shortly
But what of the Phrygian army that was with Ascanius? It did not
go with him to Italy. This could be, however, the army of 12,000 which
according to the "Chronicle" settled at the mouth of the Danube.
Fredegarius Scholasticus, claiming Jerome as his authority, says that
the Trojans fled, some to Macedonia, some to the Danube under a king
Friga. Greek historians, like Strabo, generally confirm this exodus to
Macedonia, but are silent about Friga. Since this name can mean, in
Greek, simply "the Phrygian", this just indicates that the Phrygians,
under some obscure Phrygian leader, crossed over to the European shore
and settled in Macedonia, Pannonia and near the mouth of the Danube.
Fredegarius, the "Frankish Chronicle" and Hugo of St. Victor all agree
with "Smith's Dictionary" in stating that the Phrygians settled in that
general area of the Balkans. The Macedonians, according to the latter,
called the Phrygians Bryges. Gregory of Tours also states that the
Franks were originally in Pannonia.
From the lower Danube and Pannonia the Trojan Phrygians moved on
into Europe. Fredegarius and the later "K"nigschronik" both claim that
they moved under a king Franko or Francio to the mouth of the Rhine
where they built New Troy at Xanten (a rivulet named after Xanthus, the
river of Phrygia). That a New Troy was built at Xanten is attested to
by the Romans, who called the town of Xanten Troia Nova. (See "Der
Grosse Brockhaus," article "Troia Nova".) In the same way Julius Caesar
called the Londoners Trinovantes in reference to their city having been
founded as New Troy by Brutus.
The original settling of the Franks at the mouth of the Rhine is
supported by Procopius: "... the Rhine empties into the ocean ... and
this is where the Germans lived of old ... who are now called Franks"
(Procopius of Caesarea, "History of the Wars," V, xii, 7, 8). Holland,
in other words, was the first home of the Franks in Western Europe.
It is in the region of Scythia Minor that Hunibald, the Frankish
chronicler, begins his history. According to him the Trojans, having
dwelt in this region for a number of years after the fall of Troy, are
finally involved in a series of wars with the Goths from Scandinavia.
In 445 B.C. their leader Antenor falls in battle against the Goths.
From this point in history begins Hunibald's list of Frankish kings.
The Trojans who left Troy in 677 after the Third Trojan War went
to the area of the Black Sea where they joined the group that had been
led there by Ascanius after the First Trojan War in 1181. Both were
Trojans, both went to the northern shores of the Black Sea but, at
different times. Both record the same kings as they proceed across
Kings Length of Reign Dates
1. Antenor: a king over
Trojan settlers on the
Black Sea, himself of royal
Trojan blood. Died in 445.
2. Marcomirus I: king of the 28 444- 416
Sicambri (from the German
Cimbri in whose ancient
territory they settled).
In 441 he brought the people
out of Scythia and seated
them on the Danube. During
a council he was told by a
pagan priest to go west where
Brutus of Troy had previously
gone. A pagan prophecy
promises him victory over the
Gauls and the Romans. Sends
embassy to Saxons and asks
for land in which to settle.
In April 439 B.C. they leave
the lower Danube and move
overland, first north, then
west, to the mouth of the
Rhine. A total of 489,360
persons (including 175,658
warriors but not including
slaves and servants) take
part. Marcomirus had
brothers Priam, Panthenor
and Sunno. They settled the
country now called West
Friesland, Gelders and
Holland. Marcomirus crossed
the Rhine and conquered part
of Gaul. One of his brothers
was made governor. Then the
conquest of all Gaul was
Marcomirus, according to the
"Chronicle of Hunibald", dies
926 years before the death of
the first Christian king of
the Franks, Clovis, in 511.
3. Antenor I marries Cambra, 30 416- 386
the beautiful daughter of
Belinus, king of Britain.
She introduces worship of
Janus, establishes herself
as prophetess and priestess
of Diana. From Cambra the
Scythian Trojans begin to
call themselves Sicambri.
Antenor's nephew, Grun,
builds Gr"ningen in 386 B.C.
Antenor conquered Phrygia --
the original Trojan homeland
-- and slew all the males.
(This recalls Judah's punishment
of the Edomites, many
of whom were now living in
Phrygia.) He died in 386
when Artaxerxes Mnemon, king
of Persia, having finished
the Cyprian War, led an army
of 300,000 men against the
4. Priamus: under him Sicambrians 26 386- 360
adopt Saxon language,
Greek being retained only by
priests for purposes of religious
worship. Neumagen, near
the mouth of the Rhine, becomes
seat of Jupiter worship
established by Cambra.
5. Helenus I: he erected an 19 360- 341
oratory to Pallas, whom he
worshipped by sacrificing
to her captive children.
In 353 he slew 16,000
Gauls (Chaldeans) in battle
in the land of the Tungri.
6. Diocles: he has wars with 39 341- 302
both the Gauls and the Goths.
In 331 B.C. Goths from Scania
attack Saxons, but are
repelled by a combined
Sicambro-Saxon force. He
aided the Saxons against the
Goths in 327. In his absence
the Gauls invaded his kingdom.
By the valour of his officers
they were expelled, losing
78,000 men, besides captives
7. Helenus II: an effeminate 14 302- 288
individual, unable to ward
off attacks of Gauls. He
was deposed in 288, after
which 8 years of government
under priestly rule followed.
8. Bassanus Magnus: the warlike 36 288- 252
brother of Helenus, liked to
present an image of self-
righteousness. So very
severe in his laws that he
executed his own son for
adultery and put away his
wife for reviling him for it,
and sent her to her father.
In his eighth year he built
many forts against incursions
of the Gauls and finally
obtained the full kingship in
his possession. In his
sixteenth year built the city
Bassanburg, where many of his
successors had their residence.
Trithemius calls this Aix la
Chapelle). In 285 B.C, is
attacked by father-in-law,
king of the Orkneys, but repells
him. In 264 B.C. takes over
duties as priest of Jupiter,
which leads to his ultimate
deification as "Theobasan."
In 257 B.C. leads a successful
campaign as far south as
Koblenz. At this time
Heligastus, the great prophet
of the Sicambri, flourished.
Bassanus later conquered
from the Saxons all the
country from the entrance of
the Rhine to Mentz. In
year 29 he slew Thaborinus,
king of the Togazani (now
Westphalians). He put his
son on the throne in 252
and then disappeared.
9. Clodomir I: in his third 18 252- 234
year the Gauls demanded
restitution of their lands.
Clodomir overcame them
by the aid of the king
of Thuringia and Saxony.
10. Nicanor: married 34 234- 200
Constantina, daughter of
king of Britain. In his
first year he aided the
Saxons against the Slavs
and Goths and returned
with much spoil. In his
third year he aided his
father-in-law against the
king of the Orcades. In
222 B.C. Sicambrians,
Saxons and Thuringians
defeat the Goths. In year
15 he was defeated by the
Goths from Scandinavia, but
afterwards expelled them.
In 215 B.C. he aided the
king of Britain in a war
against the Orkneys, but
was unsuccessful because
of lack of experience in
warfare on the sea.
11. Marcomirus II: successfully 28 200- 172
attacked the Romans,
Gauls, Goths in his first
year. In his fifth year
he commanded the acts of
the Gauls to be written in
rhyme and sung by the bards.
12. Clodius I: in his tenth 11 172- 161
year the Romans and Gauls
wasted his country.
Being next year aided by
the Saxons, he defeated
them, but fell himself in
13. Antenor II: he concluded 16 161- 145
a peace with the Gauls
for ten years and abolished
the Trojan custom of
sacrificing his enemies'
14. Clodomirus II: in his 20 145- 125
tenth year the Gauls
broke the peace. They
were overcome in 125, the
last year of his reign.
15. Merodachus: in his fifth 28 125- 97
year he levied an army
of 220,000 of his own
people with Saxons and
Germans and entered Italy
as far as Ravenna. In
his fifteenth year,
because of several
inundations of the sea and the
Rhine, the Sicambri and
Cimbri were forced to
transplant themselves to
the interior -- the
Hercynian Forest -- about
modern Bohemia. In his
twentieth year the Romans
and Gauls invaded their
territories and set the
Goths and Slavs on the
Saxons that they might not
aid the Sicambri. In year
23 (102-101) the Sicambri
joined the Cimbri in a war
against Rome. They were
all defeated by Marius.
After this defeat Merodachus,
with a fresh army,
marched against the Gauls,
gave them a great defeat
and settled again in their
16. Cassander: in his second 21 97- 76
year the Romans and Gauls
entered his kingdom. In
his ninth year he aided
Arabius, king of the Saxons,
against Berobista, king of
the Goths, who after five
years again invaded Germany.
Cassander, aided by Damercus
king of the Thuringi,
expelled the Goths.
17. Antharius: in his 35 76- 41
twentieth year some of
revolted to the
Sicambri, who refused
to deliver them up at
Caesar, in revenge,
entered their country
and marched all the way
to Britain 55-54. In 41
Antharius and 2000 of his
men were slain by the
Gauls. He was the last
"King of the Sicambri".
Hereafter the Sicambri
were called Franks or
Franconians after the
name of his son and
THE KINGS OF THE FRANKS
18. Francus marries a pagan 28 41- 13
priestess, daughter of
king of Thuringia. In his
third year the Goths
encroached upon the country
and remained there for ten
years, after which Francus
expelled them. In the
fourth year the name of
Sicambri was changed to
Franci by an edict at the
people's request. The
next year, being at war
with the Goths, the Gauls
wasted his dominions. As
punishment he levied an
army of 300,000 men and
invading their country took
much spoil and killed
200,000 people of all sexes
and ages. The Romans hearing
of this victory sent Lollius
with forces into Germany.
A long struggle with Rome
followed. He made a league
with the Germans and Saxons
after their Roman allies
19. Clodius II or Clogio: 30 B.C. 13- 18 A.D.
an astronomer and diviner.
This king of the
Franconians fought the
Romans in his second year.
20. Herimerus: he was slain 12 18- 30
in battle by Romans and
21. Marcomirus III: a 18 30- 48
brother of Herimerus.
Phrysius, a brother of
Marcomirus was governor
22. Clodomirus III: he 12 48- 60
devastated northern Gaul
in 55 A.D. He recovered
all that his predecessors
had lost and fought with
the Romans near Mentz and
wasted the country of Triers.
23. Antenor III: he drowns in 6 60- 66
the Rhine with much of his
army while retreating from
24. Ratherius: he renewed 21 66- 87
the league with the Germans
and Saxons in 74. He
founded Rotterdam and
was buried there.
25. Richimerus I: he was 24 87- 111
and even became a pagan
high priest. In 97 he
repelled a Gothic attack
on Saxony. He sent 18,000
settlers under son Sunno
into Saxony to secure it
against Goths. He fought
with the Romans and Gauls
near Basana (now Aix-la-
Chapelle) in 99. He
received aid of Winderchind,
king of the Saxons, and
Verminfrid, king of the
Thuringi, in 101. He
opposed the Goths who
invaded Germany. The Franks,
Germans and Saxons planted
colonies in that part of
Germany, which is now called
Brandenburg, in 106.
26. Odomar: made a league with 14 111- 125
the Romans and Gauls.
Founder of Utrecht and
builder of Odemarsheim in
27. Marcomirus IV:marries 21 125- 146
Athilde, daughter of the
king of Britain His son,
Frank, builds Helenopolis
(Frankfort), another son
becomes pagan priest. He
rebuilt Marburg in the
Landgraviate of Hesse.
28. Clodomirus IV:marries 17 146- 163
Hasilda, daughter of the
king of Rugen.
29. Farabertus: he renewed the 20 163- 183
ancient league with the
Germans. In his reign the
Dutch (Niederl"nder) are
30. Sunno or Hunno:warred 28 183- 211
with the Romans and Gauls.
Upon the death of the
Emperor Severus, in 211, he
entered Gaul and wasted it
with fire and sword.
31. Hildericus: he built a 40 211- 251
castle on an isle in the
Rhine and called it
Hildeburg, 214. Introduced
a period of cultural and
32. Bartherus: the Franks 18 251- 269
attacked in 256 -- the
year the last Odin
invaded Saxony and led
many of the tribes of
Israel to northwestern
Europe. Raids of Franks,
Thuringians and Bavarians
continue to 259 in Gaul
and Italy. In 262 Franks
and Saxons carry a raid
as far south as Tarragona,
which they besiege. They
spoiled Italy, as far as
Ravenna, 264 and razed
the town of Aragon to the
33. Clodius III or Clogio: 27 269- 296
in 283 he entered Gaul,
and having slain many
Romans, recovered some
of that which he had
formerly lost. But, the
Romans again expelled
him in 289.
34. Walter 8 296- 304
35. Dagobertus I 11 304- 315
36. Clodius IV or Clogio: 2 315- 317
the Romans and Gauls
invaded Franconia in 317.
Clogio was slain in battle.
37. Clodomirus V: brother of 18 317- 335
Clogio IV. Sends in 322
A.D. 30,000 colonists to
river Main and establishes
Dukedom of Franconia which
survives under 21 Dukes
till Pepin the Short. He
aided the Sarmata against
the Romans, of whom he slew
36,000 in 321. The Franks
were now permitted to
resettle themselves where
Holland, Utrecht, Gelders,
part of Friesia, Westphalia
and Brabant now lie. The
Franks now split, the East
Franks settling in Germany.
Their dukes are listed later.
38. Richimir II: opposed 13 335- 348
Constantius with 200,000
men in 342. He fought
with the Romans and was
slain in battle in 348.
39. Theodomirus: makes Tongres 10 348- 358
his capital, attacks and
burns Trier. Was taken by
the Emperor Julian, who
slew him and his mother.
40. Clodius V or Clogio: to 18 358- 376
revenge his father's death
he took Cambray, slew
many Romans, entered Gaul
and annexed much of it (as
far as the Sagon River) to
his dominions. In 369
Valentinian I defeats him
by surprise attack. Pepin
and Charlemagne are
descended from this king's
third son, Hector.
41. Marcomirus V: the last 15 376- 391
"King of the Franks" until
reign of Pharamund. He
obtained a great victory
over the Romans at Cologne
in 382 and recovered all
that the Emperor had
possessed, except Armorica or
Little Brittany, in 390.
He was slain in battle in
391. The Romans overpowered
the Franks, commanded them
to elect no more kings but
dukes, in the reign of
Theodosius the Great.
42. Dagobert II: appointed 5 391- 396
governor (not king) after
the death of Marcomirus,
refuses Romans tribute.
Valentinian II admires
courage of Franks, is
unable to retaliate
because otherwise occupied
and finally killed
by Arbogast a Frank.
43. Genebaldus: also a mere 21 396- 417
governor, dies without
44. Pharamundus: he is the 7 417- 424
5th duke of Franconia and
was elected king.
45. Clodius VI: teaches Franks 20 424- 444
to wear hair long to
distinguish them from
46. Meroveus: after whom 12 444- 456
Franks were called
Merovingians Takes Trier,
makes great gains in Gaul.
47. Hildericus II: this 1 455- 456
appears to have been a
joint year with Meroveus,
his father. At death of
Meroveus the son was deposed
by Egidius and rebellious
nobles. Hildericus II flees
Egidius: a Roman, set up 3 456- 459
by nobles in place of
Hildericus. He was deposed.
Hildericus: reinstated. 22 459- 481
48. Clodoveus or Clovis: 30 481- 511
accepts Roman Catholic
religion. Baptized in 496 A.D.
DUKES OF THE EAST FRANKS
Duke Length of Reign Dates
1. Genebald I: brother of 30 322- 352
Clodomlr IV, migrated
with East Franks to the
upper Rhine and became
their first duke.
2. Marcomer 21 352- 373
3. Claudius 10 373- 383
4. Marcomer II 16 383- 399
5. Pharamund became king of 15 399- 414
the West Franks in 417.
He is reckoned by early
historians as the first king of
France. In 424 the succession
passed to Clodion who founded
the Merovingian Dynasty. Its
kings all wore long hair.
They kept their kingly office
until the Pope suggested to
the East Franks (Germans)
that they could gain the
power over the Merovingians
by cutting the king's hair.
The last Merovingian was
accordingly tonsured. The
government thereafter passed
to Pippin, father of the
German king Charlemagne, who
restored the Roman Empire in
the west in 800. The history
of the Merovingians, who
descended from the Trojan
line and the house of Judah,
is made especially interesting
in a book entitled
"The Long-haired Kings," by
J. M. Wallace-Hadrill. (See
especially chapter 7.)
recognized that though they
came from Judah, they
were not of the throne
of David and would hold
their power only so long
as they kept a Nazarite
tradition -- long hair --
subjection to a Higher Power
-- God -- who rules
supreme among men. (See
6. Marcomer III: Pharamund 14 with 414- 428
ruled in Franconia or Pharamund
East Frankland 399-414;
he ruled all France from 4 sole reign 428- 432
417 till 424. Marcomer
III, Pharamund's brother,
ruled in Franconia until
Pharamund died in 428
(see "Mirror of History").
7. Priamus 12 432- 444
8. Genebaldt II 20 444- 464
9. Sunno 23 464- 487
10. Clodius II: a West Frank, 16 487- 503
became duke of the
East Franks (Germans).
11. Clodomir 21 503- 524
12. Hugbald 26 524- 550
13. Helenus 30 550- 580
14. Gottfried 24 580- 604
15. Genebaldt III 20 604- 624
16. Clodomir II 23 624- 647
17. Heribert 30 647- 677
18. Clodoueus III 12 677- 689
19. Grosswert 26 689- 715
20. Gosspert 14 715- 729
21. Hetan 20 729- 749
Interregnum under Pepin 12 749- 761
The succeeding history of the Franks is so well known and
thoroughly documented as to be everywhere available.
Hunibald's chronicle helps clear up misunderstandings about the
Franks presented by the incomplete accounts of other medieval writers.
Tyro Prosper (Augustine's friend), for instance, contradicts
practically every other ancient historian by stating that the first
king of the Franks was Priam, the father of Marcomir, Sunno and
Genebald, who lived around 382 A.D. This Priam was none other than
Dagobert II (391-396). Priam was another of Dagobert's names. Dagobert
had three sons Marcomir, Sunno and Genebald. He was the first governor
(i.e. first ruler of lower rank than king) of the Franks. Tyro Prosper
obviously did not have all his facts straight.
Another great misconception about the Franks is an alleged
migration from Pannonia in the days of emperor Valentinian. The
"Frankish Chronicle" and Hugo of St. Victor both state that Caesar
Valentinian attempted to exact tribute from the Franks living in
Pannonia, after these had helped him defeat the Alani. The Franks,
refusing to pay, were eventually forced to leave Pannonia and settle at
the mouth of the Rhine.
Some loopholes in this story are immediately evident. First of
all, Roman history is silent about any dealings with the Franks or
other Germans in Pannonia in the days of Valentinian. Secondly,
Valentinian I was emperor in the West, and died in an expedition
against the Quadi. He was never active in the East. The same is true
for Valentinian II, in whose reign the co-emperor Theodosius defeated a
league of Huns, Goths and Alans in Moesia. This incident may possibly
be partly responsible for the story that the Franks helped Valentinian
to defeat the Alans.
Hunibald again comes to our aid. He informs us that both the
Valentinians fought against the Franks in the West, not in Pannonia.
Valentinian I fought against Clogio V in 369. It was Valentinian II, in
the West, who tried to impose the tribute on the Franks in the reigns
of Marcomirus V and Dagobert II. The chroniclers probably confused
Priam (Dagobert II) and his sons Marcomir, Sunno and Genebald, with the
original migration from Pannonia under Marcomir I and his brothers
Priam, Panthenor and Sunno. As a result of this confusion, the
migration was misplaced by some 700 years. Again, this just serves to
demonstrate how valuable Hunibald's account is in presenting us with
the true picture.
There is a bit of difficulty regarding the name Sicambri by which
the Franks were for a while known. Hunibald states that it was derived
from Cambra, the wife of Antenor I. The "Frankish Chronicle," Hugo of
St. Victor and Aethicus Hister maintain, on the other hand, that
Sicambria was a city near the shore of the Black Sea and that from it
the people were called Sicambri.
Aethicus Hister, the Scythian geographer of c. 650 A.D., relates
in his "Cosmographia" the interesting fact that Caracalla -- whom he
calls Romulus -- encountered some Franks in the vicinity of Troy in 214
A.D. Aethicus states that after occupying the area of Troy (see also
Dio's "Roman History" 78.16.7) Caracalla "fought with Francus and
Vassus, who were of royal descent, and they were defeated .... For
Francus and Vassus had concluded an alliance with the Albani (Goths)
and they were both moving their armies against Romulus (Caracalla);
they crossed Histria (the region of Istria on the Dalmatian coast) ....
After the most bloody encounter Romulus defeated them. When Francus and
Vassus saw that their armies had been cut down they fled with a few who
remained ... the land was ruined, laid waste and reduced to desolation;
they were driven from their own belongings and together with a few
companions ... entered Raetia and reached uninviting and deserted
Germany ..." Here we have a small group of Franks moving into
Germany. Could this be where the chroniclers mentioned earlier got
their idea of a migration under a Francus?
A little later Franks again appear on the lower Danube, but this
time as settlers actually brought in from Germany by Probus (276-281).
Zosimus relates in his History: "But the Franks having applied to the
Emperor, and having a country given to them, a part of them afterwards
revolted, and having collected a great number of ships, disturbed all
Greece; from whence they proceeded into Sicily, to Syracuse, which they
attacked, and killed many people there. At length they arrived in
Africa, whence they were repulsed by a body of men from Carthage, yet
they returned home (to the Rhine) without any great loss" (Book I).
This adventurous excursion is also mentioned by Vopiscus and
Hunibald's Chronicle is from Johannes Trittenheim, "Chronik von
der Francken Ursprung," Frankfurt, 1605.
THE HAPSBURGS ENTER
What connection have the Austrian Hapsburgs with the Trojan kings
of the East Franks? Much more than historians today recognize. From
Pharamond, king of the Franks, came a princely line of rulers who
intermarried with Austrian royalty. This line is preserved in the
"Historia de Xerez" by Gutierrez, From Pharamond descended:
Clotarius, whose son Sigibert became a king in Austria
Childubert, king of Austrasia and Burgundy
Theodobert, king of Austrasia
Ligibert, duke of Austrasia
Othobert, count of Altemburg
Rapatus, whose son became count of Hapsburg
Werner, count of Hapsburg
Rudolf II: of Hapsburg, who became Holy Roman Emperor in 1273.
THE DUKES OF GAUL
At the end of the First Trojan War in 1181 still another group
left Troy. These Trojans were led by Franco the son of Hector. The
story of their migration to Gaul is extant. It is found in a medieval
French chronicle -- "Le Myreur d'Histoire" ("The Mirror of History").
This line of rulers is preserved from France to Clovis.
(NOTE: To view the chart placed here, see the file CMPDM2E.TIF in the
Ruler Length of Reign Dates
1. Franco I: he left Troy 10 1181-1171
with Aeneas and Antenor.
They sailed to Sizille
(probably Sicily). Franco
traveled to Italy and
North Africa. Then with
3,000 of his followers he
settled in southern Gaul.
They called the area
Franche. The people were sons
of Franco or Franchois. After
his death they were known as
2. Melus: a son of Franco. 51 1171-1120
He rebuilds Troy in 1145.
His daughter, Odela, married
Silvius the king of Italy.
3. Bosses: a son of Melus. 24 1120-1096
He defeated Ascanius,
king of Italy, in a
battle. Bosses later
married Grata the daughter
of Ascanius. This may
have settled the dispute
4. Ector I: he was the 16 1096-1080
grandson of Broncus.
Broncus was a son of Silvius
and Odela. Ector founded
Troy in Burgogne.
5. Alemaine: son of Bosses. 22 1080-1058
He conquered all Germany
and fortified many cities.
Allemania, a section of
Germany, derives its name
6. Castor: founds the city 30 1058-1028
of Castre. Died in a fight
with Silvius, king of
7. Ylion I 40 1028- 988
8. Alienoir 28 988- 960
9. Gossain 12 960- 948
10 Ector II 19 948- 929
11. Athanaise 21 929- 908
12. Franco II: married 10 908- 898
Ydoneas the daughter of
Agrippa king of the Latins.
13. Yborus I: son of Franco II 15 898- 883
and Ydoneas. He had a war
with his cousin, the king
of Italy. Founded Lutesse.
14 Anthenoire I 17 883- 866
15. Yolens: he conquered 43 866- 823
16. Prian I 26 823- 797
17. Yborus II: he repelled 22 797- 775
two attacks on Gaul
from Amulius king of the
Latins. His daughter,
Oderne, married Gaffre
the king of Africa. After
Yborus died Amulius married
18. Ector III 50 775- 725
19. Ylion II: he founded 40 725- 685
20. Nay: he founded Turnay. 34 685- 651
21. Alymodes: he married the 74 651- 577
daughter of a Roman senator.
He was victorious in a war
with the Roman king Priscus.
One of his children, Aquitaine,
gave his name to the region
22. Orlins (Aurelian): built 54 577- 523
and gave his name to Orleans.
23. Avrengnas: Auvergne 14 523- 509
derives its name from this
24. Yborus III 40 509- 469
25. Frisones: Frise in 28 469- 441
Champagne is named after
26. Flambo: the Gauls took 48 441- 393
Rome as far as the capitol
during his rule.
27. Flandroc 33 393- 360
28. Turrus (Turnus): founded 59 360- 301
Tours. That section of
France called "Touraine"
derives its name from him.
29. Brugen: Bruges was 25 301- 276
founded by him. His
brother Amyrus founded
30. Duanus (Duaynus) 16 276- 260
31. Camberacion: founded 55 260- 205
32. Bretanges: Brittany is 10 205- 195
named after him.
33. Cletus 22 195- 173
34. Franco III: he joined the 53 173- 120
Flemish and Burgundians
against Rome. The Romans
under Scipio were defeated.
35. Prians II 56 120- 64
36. Yborus IV: Julius Caesar 40 64- 24
invaded Gaul and took
Paris while he ruled.
37. Franco IV 28 B.C. 24- 5 A.D.
38. Trojolus (Troielus) I 29 5- 34
39. Cloberius (Cloveius) 45 34- 79
40. Ector IV: he defeated the 47 79- 126
Romans and captured
41. Franco V: he was made 25 126- 151
duke of the Gauls by the
42. Anthenoir II: he was duke 31 151- 182
of Gaul and count
43. Ector V 5 182- 187
44. Franco VI 8 187- 195
45. Troiolus II 27 195- 222
46. Marcones I: wars were 44 222- 266
fought in which the
Romans lost nearly 30,000
47. Ector VI; the Germans 16 266- 282
held Paris for a short
48. Porus: Diocletian was 19 282- 301
defeated by the dukes of
Gaul and Brittany. Martin
Bishop of Tongre baptized
49. Marcones (Merones) II 32 301- 333
50. Anthenoir III 10 333- 343
51. Ector VII 1 343- 344
52. Prian III 32 344- 376
53. Marchones III under regent 7 376- 383
joint with son 34 383- 417
sole (31) (383- 414)
KINGS OF FRANCE
1. Pharamond 11 417- 428
2. Clodius 20 428- 448
3. Meroveux 10 448- 458
4. Celdris 23 458- 481
5. Cloveis 30 481- 511
These are kings after Marcomirus V (376-391). Compare this list
with that from the "Chronicle of Hunibald."
Historians would have us believe that Western Europe was inhabited
by wild and barbarian Celts and Germans while Rome flourished in power
and glory. But, the evidence proves that civilized people migrated to
Gaul and the Low Countries centuries before the founding of Rome.
In 1181 Troy fell to the Greek invaders. Franco, a son of Hector,
fled to Southern Gaul. His group was later known as Gauls. Caesar
subdued them during campaigns in Aquitania and Provence.
Bavo and his followers arrived in Belgica in 1179. They were known
as Belgians or Batavians. Another migration leaving in 1181 was led by
Francus. They ultimately reached Celtica. The Celts lost their
independence to Ursus (Belgian king) in 766. In 52 Caesar conquered
both Gaul and Belgium.
Francio began a movement which eventually settled in Pannonia. One
of their rulers, Brabon Silvius, was given Agrippina by Julius Caesar.
In 378 A.D. Gratian drove the Sicambrians out of Pannonia. Maximus
allowed them to migrate to Brabant. Clodius, king of the Franks,
annexed Brabant. Thus, Brabon became a servant and Brabant a dukedom.
Trojans under Ascanius (1181) and Alexander (677) joined each
other on the Danube. The trek across Europe began in 445. By 439 they
reached the mouth of the Rhine. The Sicambrian and Frankish kings ruled
the Trojans there. During the reign of Clodomirus V (317-335) the
Franks split (East and West). Marcomirus V was the last king of the
Franks until Pharamund.
HISTORY OF SWEDEN AND THE SAXONS
The Swedes, too, have a remarkable history which modern critical
historians have largely rejected. Rejected, not because the historians
have disproved the facts, but because they simply do not want to
believe the records.
Who today would believe that there was an Odin? -- a god who made
his appearance among the Swedes and Saxons? The idea would be laughed
out of school because there were no gods! It seems never to have
occurred to historians that" the heathen would have called a
flesh-and-blood king a god -- and deified him.
Has the twentieth century already forgotten a man named Hitler
whom the German Propaganda Minister Goebbels called "Mein Fuehrer und
mein Gott" -- "My Fuehrer and my God"?
THE RECORDS SPEAK
Let Swedish history speak for itself. The early chronicles and
sagas of the Scandinavians reveal a remarkable story. The regnal lists
give us the time setting The story they have to tell does not agree
with the modern concept of northern barbarians who had no sense of
history until perhaps nine or ten centuries after the Christian Era.
History writers have been so enamored of Rome that any record not
preserved by the Romans is looked upon as unhistorical. What is
unhistorical is the view that the Romans preserved all that merits the
name history. Rome did not preserve. Rome destroyed. And anyway, of
what interest would the history of Scandinavia have been to Roman
In the Middle Ages Swedish writers began the process of digesting
the mass of information preserved in their early chronicles and sagas.
Among them the name Bertius should be especially named.
Bertius' "History of Sweden" has been in part, though not
altogether correctly, summarized by James Anderson in his "Royal
The early history of Scandinavia is a remarkable confirmation of
the Biblical record and of the early history of the German and
Mediterranean peoples. It begins with the story of the dispersal of the
families of the earth by Noah. It was this God-decreed event against
which Nimrod rebelled. Why should people not be free to go where they
pleased? After all this was their earth! Or so he thought.
From Persian and Italian history it has already been determined
that the migration to various parts of the world began in 2261. Swedish
chronicles trace the history of this migration and of the peoples who
have since inhabited Scandinavia. The story opens with the migration of
Magog out of the region of Ararat or Armenia.
The family of Magog at first settled in the vast reaches of the
Eurasian steppes. From there most of his descendants spread north and
east through Bactria and Turkestan into Mongolia and China. A few
spread northwest -- by 2260, says Bertius -- into the North Russian
plains and the lands bordering on the Baltic. At this very day may be
found a semi-Mongoloid people -- the Lapps -- inhabiting the
Scandinavian Arctic with their reindeer. Sweden was also inhabited in
early times by Goths -- whom all writers admit were the children of
Gether, the son of Aram. Now notice the chronological record of these
early events from Bertius outlined here:
1. Magog 43 2260-2217
2. Suevus or Sweno, the older 56 2217-2161
brother of Gether. His
Biblical name is Uz, the
father of the Suevonians,
Ausonians and Sitonians
(see Gen. 10:23).
3. Gether, younger son of Aram 60 2161-2101
4. Ubbo, who settled Upsal 101 2101-2000
Significantly, the date
2101 also brings Noah into
Italy again. The year 2000
is the time of the division
of Europe by Tuisto, king
of the Germans.
5. Siggo 10 2000-1990
Danish history declares that from this date -- 1990 --
Scandinavia, and in particular Denmark, had Judges, rather than kings,
who governed for the space of 950 years. It was exactly 950 years until
1040 and the coming of king Odin -- Danus I of Denmark (see Danish
Swedish history continues with names of famous Scandinavian Judges
-- in some cases they assumed the royal title. Bertius lists them as
6. Eric I, began in 1990 11. Biorn I
7. Uddo 12. Gethar II
8. Ale 13. Siggo II
9. Osten I 14. Berich or Eric
10. Karl or Charles I
MIGRATION OUT OF SWEDEN
Berich became king in 1511 according to Bertius. He ruled the
Goths 40 years. According to Jordanus, the historian of the Goths,
Berich led them out of Scandinavia to the Middle East. This is also the
period of the sudden appearance in Mesopotamia of the Gothic people --
the Guti. (At that time, as in later days, the Goths were widely
scattered. Many had settled in the regions of Bactria northeast of
Mesopotamia; others had been in Eastern Europe and Scandinavia.) Berich
or Eric appears in Greece in the Athenian list of kings. There his name
is Erichthonius He came to power in Athens the year of the Exodus --
After Berich, Bertius' Swedish history preserves only one other
name -- the fifteenth in order -- Humulf. He is called the successor of
Berich. Swedish history does not pick up again until the time of
Humble, son of Danus I of Denmark.
At this point in Swedish history Bertius has placed his list
upwards of between two and three centuries too early. His confusion
arose from misunderstanding who Danus I of Denmark was. There was an
earlier Danus -- in the 1200's. He led the Tuatha De Danaan (who had
come from Greece in the time of Jabin king of Canaan) from Scandinavia
to Scotland and then into Ireland. That Danus was not Danus I of
Swedish history recommences after the period of judges, just after
the time of Danus I. Danus led a Hebrew-Trojan migration to
Properly restored from a comparison with contemporary Danish
history, Bertius' list of Swedish rulers should appear as follows:
16. Humble, son of Danus I (8) (999- 991)
The figure and date at
the right are from Danish
history Bertius gives
17. Gothlias (40) (991- 951)
18. Sigtaug 33 951- 918
19. Scarin 40 918- 878
20. Suibdager, king of Norway. 60 878- 818
He ruled Denmark for 40 years
21. Hasmund, son of Suibdager 48 818- 770
22. Uffo, son of Hasmund 44 770- 726
23. Hunding 48 726- 678
24. Regner, son of Hunding and 29 678- 649
younger brother-in-law of
Frotho I of Denmark.
25. Hotobrod, son of Regner 65 678- 613
He was associated with
his father on the throne
during a period of Danish
domination of Sweden.
26. Atilla I 49 613- 564
27. Hothar, king of Sweden and 78 564- 486
Hothar is usually dated
527-485 in Danish history.
And his son Roric in Denmark
is given 49 years -- 485-
436, But the list of Danish
kings in "Historisch -- und
Geographisches" Lexicon by
Jacob Iselin, art. "Danemarck,"
assigns 50 years to Roric --
486-436. This confirms the
Swedish dating. The year
486-485 was the climax of a
Danish revolt against Hotobrod.
28. Roric 84 520- 436
He reigned jointly with
his father for many years,
while his father governed
29. Attila II, or Atisle 30 436- 406
30. Botwildus, son of Attila II 42 406- 364
31. Charles II 48 364- 316
32. Gramus -- 316-
From here on there is no record of the lengths of reign of any
Swedish ruler until the time of Augustus Caesar. The political
divisions of the country probably acknowledged no supreme ruler over
the whole of the land. Only the following list of names is recorded for
the intervening period.
33. Tordo I
35. Adolphus, son of Gotharus
36. Algodus I
37. Erich II
38. Lindornus, son of Eric II
39. Alrich or Abric
He became king of Sweden
in the days of Augustus
Caesar. Following his
murder Eric III ascended
40. Eric III 22 18 B.C. to A.D. 5
Bertius gives the longer (or 79) 75 B.C. to A.D. 5
figure, which must indicate
that a lengthy struggle for
the kingship occurred in
the days of Alrich and Eric.
Hereafter there is a consecutive
list of kings. The political
stability of Sweden returned.
Swedish history now continues to the time of Njord or Nearch --
256. The following list of Swedish kings may be readily found in James
Anderson's "Royal Genealogies." Unfortunately the author failed to take
note of no Year 0. Consequently all these Swedish kings are dated one
year too early! The corrected dates are below.
41. Godrich 30 5- 35
42. Haldan I 36 35- 71
43. Filmer 14 71- 85
44. Nordian 16 85- 101
45. Siward I 31 101- 132
46. Charles II 38 132- 170
47. Erich IV 12 170- 182
48, Haldan II (Bergiamus), 13 182- 195
died without heir
49. Unguin 9 195- 204
He ruled Denmark 146-155.
He came to the Swedish
throne in his old age.
50. Ragwald 17 204- 221
51. Amund I 5 221- 226
52. Haron 9 226- 235
53. Siward II 6 235- 241
54. Ingo I, Gylfe 6 241- 247
Odin appears in his day.
55. Nearch or Njord 9 247- 256
DYNASTY OF YNGLING
56. Froda or Frey called Yngve 2 256- 258
57. Urbarus 5 258- 263
58. Ostevus 1 263- 264
59. Fiolmus 10 264- 274
60. Swercher I 5 274- 279
61. Waland or Vanland 4 279- 283
The Yngling family began to reign in 256, the year Saxon history
(which will appear at the end of this chapter) brings the family of
Odin to Northwestern Europe. The people whom Odin brought originally
came from Asaheim -- the home or land of God ("the gods" in pagan
Swedish terminology). Many writers have placed the migration of this
period three centuries too early. They have confused another Odin --
Danus III (146-77) -- with this later Odin.
62. Wisbur 6 283- 289
63. Domalder 19 289- 308
64. Domar 7 308- 315
65. Attila III 22 315- 337
66. Dignerus or Dygve 5 337- 342
67. Dagerus or Dag 24 342- 366
68. Alricus 2 366- 368
69. Ingemarus I 11 368- 379
70. Ingelderus 4 379- 383
71. Germundus 5 383- 388
72. Hakon 12 388- 400
73. Egilus 6 400- 406
74. Gotharus or Ottar 16 406- 422
75. Fasto 6 422- 428
76. Gumundus 6 428- 434
77. Adelus 4 434- 438
78. Osten II 16 438- 454
79. Ingemarus II 2 454- 456
80. Holstenus 5 456- 461
81. Biornus II 4 461- 465
82. Ragwaldus II 17 465- 482
83. Swartmannus 28 482- 510
84. Tordo II 1 510- 511
85. Rodulf 17 511- 528
86. Hatinus 21 528- 549
87. Attila IV 16 549- 565
88. Tordo III 18 565- 583
89. Algodus 24 583- 607
90. Godstagus 24 607- 631
91. Arthus 19 631- 650
92. Hakon II 21 650- 671
93. Charles IV 6 671- 677
94. Charles V 9 677- 686
95. Borgerus 15 686- 701
96. Eric V 17 701- 718
97. Tordo IV 47 718- 765
98. Biorn III 16 765- 781
99. Alaric II 33 781- 814
100. Biorn IV 11 814- 825
101. Bratemunder 3 825- 828
102. Siward III 15 828- 843
103. Heroth 14 843- 857
104. Charles VI 12 857- 869
105. Biorn V 15 869- 884
106. Ingold 8 884- 892
107. Claus I 9 892- 901
108. Ingo II 7 901- 908
109. Eric VI 19 908- 927
110. Eric VII 14 927- 941
111. Eric VIII 40 941- 981
112. Olaus II, the Lap-king 38 981-1019
113. Amund II 21 1019-1040
114. Amund III 2 1040-1042
115. Hakon Ruffus 13 1042-1055
DYNASTY OF STENKIL
116. Stenchil 5 1055-1060
117. Ingo II, first Christian 5 1060-1065
king of Sweden and Gothland.
118. Halsten 16 1065-1081
119. Philip 30 1081-1111
120. Aquin or Ingo IV 19 1111-1130
Ingo is said to have been poisoned in 1125. A struggle for the
throne ensued. As there was no direct male heir of the house of
Stenkil, the descendants on the female side of the family claimed right
121. Ragnald, king of the Upper
Swedes during period of
122. Mangus I, a Danish prince, 4 1130-1134
king of West Gothland
123. Swecher II, chosen in 1133, began to reign in 1134 (see
"Encyclopaedia Britannica," eleventh edition, art. "Sweden"). Most
thorough histories on Sweden are complete and accurate from this
period. A helpful work to consult is the "History of Sweden" by
Cronholm. Some dates may vary because the end of reign does not always
mark the date of death.
Saxon history is intimately tied to the history of Denmark and
especially Sweden. The Saxon throne in England today goes back to the
same royal lines that anciently governed Denmark and Sweden. Each
ultimately stems from the Jewish Trojan House of Darda or Dardanus.
Let us pick up our investigation of this Jewish royal family that
came from Troy to Denmark under Odin or Danus I in 1040. In the chapter
on Danish history the records of Iceland and Phoenicia proved that
Jacob or Israel was the ancestor of the ancient Trojan royal house.
From Israel the line descended through Judah and Zarah to Dardanus.
Dardanus carved out an important inheritance for himself at Troy. The
lineage of Dardanus is brought down after the first fall of Troy for
several generations to Sceaf or Odin (Danus) in the Icelandic records.
From the Danish royal house the following branch sprang, giving rise to
the Saxon royal house that today governs England.
This collateral line is preserved in the old "Saxon Chronicle" and
in the Icelandic Langfedgatal. Spellings vary slightly, and not every
generation is recorded in each.
For that matter neither did Matthew record every generation of
Jesus' lineage. This list commences with Shem, son of Noah and
Sceaf or Odin I (1040-999) Beu
Celdwa Woden (256-300)
This Odin -- only a part of whose ancestors appear above -- is a
famous hero in all Scandinavian literature His fame rests upon having
led a vast multitude from the Near East, on the borders of the Roman
Empire, to Northwest Europe. The real name of Woden was Bodo. He is
found also listed among the early princes of Saxony The following list
preserves the traditional chronology and genealogy of Bodo's immediate
ancestors who ruled the Saxons to the time of Bodo the Woden.
Kings Over the Saxons Lengths of Reign Dates
1. Harderich 93 90 B.C. to A.D. 4
2. Anserich 4 4- 8
3. Wilke I 22 8- 30
4. Svarticke I 46 30- 76
5. Svarticke II 4 76- 80
6. Sigward 20 80- 100
7. Witekind I 6 100- 106
8. Wilke II 84 106- 190
9. Marbod 66 190- 256
10. Bodo or Woden 44 256- 300
His queen was named Frea.
From Bodo sprang, among many others, the following princes after
11. Witte I 50 300- 350
12. Witte II 50 350- 400
13. Witigislus 34 400- 434
14. Hengist 14 434- 448
Hengist traditionally sailed to England in 449 and established
several sons on thrones over the various divisions of the Anglo-Saxons.
They finally united into the single royal house that now, through many
intermarriages, rules the British Isles. In his continental realm
Hengist left his son Hartwaker who ruled 32 years -- 448-480. The line
continued in Saxony in Germany until Witekind II, the Great -- 768-785.
Witekind was conquered by Charlemagne in 785.
THE HISTORY OF ARABIA
Arabia may be blanketed by arid plateaus and inhospitable deserts.
But Arabia is also a vast land inhabited by many different tribes. Few
have ever compared it with Europe. Many of the great nations of Europe
would be lost in Arabia's solitudes.
Arabia also has its past history -- one which joins together and
confirms the accounts of neighboring nations. Arabia borders -- by land
and sea -- on Mesopotamia and Persia, on Syria and Palestine and on
Egypt and Ethiopia. Whatever happened in the heartland of the ancient
world inevitably affected the trade routes of Arabia.
WHO WERE THE FIRST ARABS?
The most famous name in Arabian history is that of Ishmael.
Ishmael, Abram and Hagar's son, is the progenitor of most of the Arab
world. Then why are not the people called Ishmaelites today? Why do we
not call the peninsula of Arabia the peninsula of Ishmael? How did
Ishmaelites acquire the designation Arab?
Answer: the land was already known as Arabia before Ishmael was
The word Arab is derived from the Hebrew root "arab." It means
evening, dusk, and also sterile (desert). The vast arid land of Arabia
lay immediately to the west and south of Babylonia from whence human
beings spread after Babel. It was only natural that they should call
the land which lay to the west Arabia. As they migrated in Arabia they
called the land to the south Yemen. Yemen means right and south (cf.
the Biblical Ben-jamin) -- because in the Middle East people face east
(not north) in defining directions.
Any who dwelt in this vast peninsula came to be known as Arabs. In
fact, one of the earliest heroes in Arabia came to be known simply as
Yarab -- the Arabian. His real name was Jerah, the son of Joktan. And
with him we open the history of Arabia.
A simple account of Arabian history may be found in "Universal
History," Vol. XVIII. It is immediately noticed that Arabian emphasis
is on heroes, not time. Events can be dated only to contemporary
generations. Only Yemen has an accurate chronology. This weakness is
still witnessed in the Islamic calendar. It is lunar, but not solar. It
neglects the seasons and loses seven months in nineteen solar years.
Arabian history opens up before the time of Ishmael, as one might
readily expect. It begins with the life of Joktan, the son of Heber.
The Arabs call Joktan by the name Kahtan. Joktan was the father of
thirteen sons mentioned in the Bible, eleven of whom journeyed into
Europe where their descendants mainly live today. Several of those sons
early planted colonies along the trade routes of the world -- just as
have the children of Peleg, Joktan's brother, in the modern world.
Among the sons who planted colonies along south Arabia were
Hazarmaveth, Jerah and Hadoram (whom the Arabs call Jorham). Ophir also
planted colonies in other areas of the world.
In later history the sons of Hazarmaveth migrated out of Arabia,
joined with the Elamites and journeyed into Europe after the fall of
Persia. There they came to be known as Sarmatians.
THE JORHAMITES OF HEJAZ
The children of Hadoram or Jorham founded Hejaz. There princes
reigned until the time of Ishmael, who is said by Arabian historians to
have married the daughter of Modad, a daughter of one of the princes of
Jorham's family. The family of Ishmael afterward expelled the
Jorhamites from Arabia. The names of the early princes of the
Jorhamites have been preserved by Arab historians. Their account is
1. Jorham, the brother of Yarab, founded Hejaz; he is Hadoram, the
brother of Jerah.
2. Abd Yalil, the son of Jorham.
3. Jorsham, the son of Abd Yalil.
4. Abdo'l Madan, the son of Jorsham.
5. Nogailah, the son of Abdo'l Madan. (Note the name Medan at nearly
the same time in Abraham's family.)
6. Abdo'l Masih, the son of Nogailah.
7. Modad, the son of Abdo'l Masih.
8. Amru, the son of Modad.
9. Al Hareth, brother of Amru. This name will appear again, though
much later, in the form of Aretas, the king
who sought to lay hands on the apostle Paul at Damascus.
10. Amru, the son of Al Hareth.
11. Basher, the brother of Amru.
12. Modad, the son of Amru, the son of Modad. It was his daughter whom
Ishmael married, according to Arabian
historians. His other wife his mother chose out of Egypt.
Thereafter the name of Kedar (Kidar in Arabic) appears.
Kedar was the son of Ishmael by the daughter of Modad. After the
conquest of the Jorhamites, the family of Kedar continued to rule over
the Hejaz for nine generations until Adnan, the last one named. There
follows a blank period of about 1200 years, after which the Ishmaelites
reappear under another leader called Adnan in 122 B.C. One branch of
his descendants later established themselves as the Sherifs of Mecca.
King Hussein of Jordan is their direct descendant.
THE KINGDOM OF YEMEN
In Arabia, at the southwest corner, is the modern Yemen -- Yaman
in Arabic. It means south. It is a land of many diverse tribes -- many
non-Ishmaelite. Yemen was founded by Kahtan -- the Joktan of the Bible.
Yemen anciently controlled the entrance to the Red Sea from the Indian
Ocean. Hence its early importance to the Hebrew family. Hamza
Ben-el-Hasan of Isfahan has preserved the history and chronology of
Yemen to the time of Mohammed. The best summary of his work is found in
"Geschichte der Araber vor Muhamed" by August Ruhle von Lilienstern,
Berlin, 1836, pp. 103 ff and especially Tafel I.
Rulers of Yemen Length of Reign Dates
1. Kahtan or Joktan, first (His brother Peleg was
established his rule in born 2268)
Yemen, then went into
Europe where he was known
as Hister (meaning same
as original Hebrew
2. Yarab, son of Kahtan,
from whom the Kahtan Arabs
of the south derive their
origin. His Biblical
name is Jerah.
3. Yashab, son of Yarab.
4. Abd Shems, surnamed Saba,
son of Yashab. He led
against enemies in the
peninsula. In 1978 he
expanded his power across
the Red Sea into Ethiopia, (See Ethiopian history
where he established for dates)
himself as the head of a
new Joktanite dynasty.
In Ethiopian history he
is known as Akbunas Saba.
Abd Shems had several sons,
among whom were Hamyar,
Amru and Cahlan. Cahlan
succeeded his father on the
throne in Ethiopia in 1923
under the name of Nakehte
5, Hamyar, son of Abd Shems, 150 1709-1559
began his reign, according
to Abulfeda, 129 years
after the death of Hud
(whom Arabs say is Eber).
Hamyar drove the remnant
of the Themudites or
Troglodytes out of Yemen.
These were later found by
Greek Geographers on the
African shore of the Red Sea.
6. Wayel, son of Hamyar,
succeeded to the kingdom.
Other writers mention
Cahlan -- which implies a
division of land among the
7. Alsacsac, son of Wayel.
8. Yaafar, son of Alsacsac.
9. Dhu Rujash. At this point
it ought to be noted that the
number of generations over so
long a period corresponds
almost exactly to the Biblical
record from Abraham to David.
There were 14 generations in
the Bible in just under 1000
years. As in the Biblical
record the inheritance often
passed to a son born late in
life (as in the case of David,
the youngest son of Jesse).
10. Al Numan, son of Yaafar.
11. Ashman, son of Numan.
12. Shaddad, son of Ad, son of
Al Matata, son of Abd Shems.
He was a very powerful
prince in Arabic tradition
He lived during the time of
the great Hyksos expansion in
the Middle East. Arab
tradition claims he ruled
13. Lokman, brother of Shaddad.
14. Dhu Sadad, brother of Lokman. -1150
15. Al Hareth, son of Dhu 125 1150-1025
Sadad. In his time Yemen
became immensely wealthy.
Reason? The Trojan war.
With trade shut off from
Scythia, it was inevitable
that there should be an
expansion of commerce along
the southern route.
16. Dhu'l Karnain Assaab.
(Joint reign with successor
who is assigned entire
17. Dhutl Manar Abrahah, son of 183 1025- 842
18. Africus, son of Dhu'l 164 842- 678
Manar Abrahah. His name
signifies the connection
between Egypt, Ethiopia
and South Arabia at this
time. He settled North
Africa with Berbers from
Palestine and Egypt.
19. Dhu'l Adhaar Amru, son of 25 678- 653
Africus, made foreign
20. Sharhabil, descendant of
Alsacsac. (Joint reign.)
21. Al Hodhad, son of Sharhabil. 75 653- 578
22. Balkis, son of Hodhad. In 20 578- 558
some Arabic sources his
name is confused with Belkis
-- the Arabic name for the
Queen of Sheba.
23. Nasherol'neam, descendant 85 558- 473
24. Shamer Yaraash, son of 37 473- 436
Nasher. He gave his name
to Samarkand in Central
Asia. At this time there
must have been extensive
migration of Edomites and
Joktanites out of Arabia
into Central Asia, around
25. Abu Malec, son of Shamer. 55 436- 381
26. Amran, son of Amer,
descendant of Cahlan, the
brother of Hamyar.
27. Amru, son of Amer (both
brothers reign jointly,
but the chronology is
reckoned after the reigns of
Abu Malec and Al Akran).
28. Al Akran, descendant of 53 381- 328
29. Dhu Habshan, son of 70 328- 258
30. Tobba, younger brother 163 258- 95
of Al Akran.
31. Colaicarb, son of Tobba. 35 95- 60
32. Abu Carb Asaad (Tobba). 20 60- 40
He is mentioned in the
Koran. He revived religious
interest among the Arabians
and Hamyarites. He adorned
the Kaaba, the sacred stone
building at Mecca, and
introduced Judaism among
the Hamyarites, The Arab
historian Ibu Khaldun
reports that Abu Carb sent
large military expeditions
into Central Asia. Two of
these reached Tibet and
China, where they caused a
great blood bath. On the
way back many warriors of
the Hamyarite armies settled
in Tibet. Tribes using the
Hamyarite alphabet were still
found in that region in
modern times (Marquart,
p. 84). Abu Carb was
murdered, possibly for
33. Hassan ben Tobbai, son 70 40 B.C.- 31 A.D.
34. Amru Tobbai (Dhu Lawad), 63 31- 94
son of Hassan.
35. Abd Celal 74 94- 168
36. Tobba, grandson of Hassan. 78 168- 246
37. Al Haroth, son of Amru.
(Joint reign.) He was
king of Hamyarites who
38. Morthed, son of Celal, also 41 246- 287
surnamed Dhu Lawad.
39. Waciaa, son of Morthed. 37 287- 324
40. Abrahah, son of Alsabah
41. Sabban (Joint reign).
42. Sabbash (Joint rule with 15 324- 339
43. Hassan, descendant of Amru 57 339- 396
(Joint rule with Sabban).
44. Dhu Shanater. He was 27 396- 423
finally dethroned for
unnatural lusts, having
abused several youths
of the noblest families.
45. Yusuf Dhu Nowas 20 423- 443
46. Dhu Jadan, the last of 60 443- 503
the Hamyaritic monarchs.
He sought to enforce Judaism
in opposition to Christianity.
The Ethiopians, with help of
Byzantium, defeated Dhu
Jadan. He perished in the
sea, fleeing from the
ruled Yemen for the next
72 years (503-575) until
the Persian conquest.
47. Arnat 20 503- 523
48. Abrahah 23 523- 546
49. Iecsoum (Yacsum) 17 546- 563
50. Masruk 12 563- 575
51. Seif Ebn Dhu Yazan, a 575
descendant of the old
royal family of Hamyar,
recovered the throne from
the Ethiopians with the
aid of the Persian Khosru
Anushirwan. Seif was,
however, slain by certain
Ethiopians whom he had
failed to expel. After
575 the Persians appointed
princes until the time of
Mohammedan conquest of Yemen.
Arabian historians reckon 3000 years to the end of the Kingdom of
Yemen. And it is indeed exactly 3000 years from the end of the Flood to
the death of Mohammed in 632, when the government of Arabia passed to
the Ishmaelite caliphs, the successors of Mohammed.
ARABIA'S INDIAN OCEAN NEIGHBORS
To complete Volume II, we must recount the brief history of
Arakan, in Burma, and the history of early India before 1649.
The Arakanese, in Burma, have preserved a remarkable history going
back to the Tower of Babel. The initial part of it was cited in the
early history of Peru. A continuation of that chart is given below. It
traces the migration of peoples out of Mesopotamia into the Ganges
valley. For several centuries after the age of Horus (Maradzi II of
Arakanese history) there are Hindu names ending in -sandra in the list
of rulers. Abruptly the names change. There followed a migration of
Southeast Asians out of India into the area of Arakan along the Burmese
During the time in India the early Hindu rulers utilized the
nonaccession-year method of dating. That is, the last calendar year of
a king (during which he died or was deposed) was also reckoned as the
first calendar year of his successor. This same method was used in the
nation Israel to the time of Jehu -- in contrast to the accession-year
system of Judah.
Arakanese records fill in the missing years of Indian history to
1649. Properly restored from the palm-leaf records, their early rulers
appear as follows:
Maradzi II (Horus) 33 2004-1971,
Marakeng Year 1 1971-1970
Year 32 1940-1939,
Ngatshapo Year 1 1940-1939
(a usurper) Year 21 1920-1919
Dwaratsandra Year 1 1920-1919
Year 40 1881-1880
Tholatsandra Year 1 1881-1880
Year 33 1849-1848
Tsandathuriyatsandra Year 1 1849-1848
Year 37 1813-1812
Kalatsandra Year 1 1813-1812
Year 40 1774-1773
Titsandra Year 1 1774-1773
Year 31 1744-1743
Madhuthatsandra Year 1 1744-1743
Year 20 1725-1724
Dzeyatsandra Year 1 1725-1724
Year 40 1686-1685
Mokkhatsandra Year 1 1686-1685
Year 26 1661-1660
Gunnatsandra Year 1 1661-1660
Year 12 1650-1649
Three Usurpers in one 1650-1649,
calendar year. ending early
At this point the names of kings ending in -sandra cease. The
succeeding centuries of Indian history may be found restored in Volume
I of the Compendium. The migration in 1649 of Mongoloid peoples out of
India to Arakan in Burma was a consequence of the war with Assyria in
THE MIRACLE OF THE RED SEA
Did the children of Israel really cross the Red Sea? We are told
in the Bible that Israel fled Egypt during the Days of Unleavened
Bread. That they were driven out because the Egyptians had been
supernaturally punished by God.
But at the last minute, Pharaoh changed his mind! It took yet
another miracle to deliver the children of Israel out of Egypt, says
the Bible -- the "miracle of the Red Sea."
Did this miracle really happen?
DO MIRACLES HAPPEN TODAY?
It is time Christians recognized it takes a miracle today to
separate from this world, to come out of this world's society, and to
live as God has ordained! Those who say that the miracle of the Red Sea
did not happen are the same people who today say we do not have to rely
on any supernatural power to overcome this world.
The supreme lesson to be learned from the Days of Unleavened Bread
is that, after Christ has passed over our mistakes and overlooks our
past, we have to go through a period of separating from this world --
and in this process we cannot extricate ourselves from this world
without a divine miracle. This miracle is something that God, not man,
has to perform -- just as God performed, according to the Scripture,
the miracle of the Red Sea! God told the children of Israel, "Stand
still, and see the salvation of the Lord."
Now consider the story of what really took place during the seven
days of Unleavened Bread -- from the time the children of Israel left
the land where they observed the Passover to the time they crossed he
Modern critics have all kinds of theories as to the directions the
children of Israel took when they journeyed in Egypt from the city of
Rameses, where they met at the night of the Festival, to the Red Sea.
One sometimes wonders where the children of Israel would have been
taken had all the modern critics instead of Moses led them from
What portion of the land of Egypt did Israel journey through upon
leaving? What is the route of the Exodus? Did the crossing of the Red
Sea really occur?
BACKGROUND OF THE STORY
The background of the story is found in Genesis 15:18. "In the
same day the Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying, Unto thy seed
have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river,
the river Euphrates."
Is this "river of Egypt" the Nile?
Some modern critics tell us "no." They claim it is, instead, a dry
river bed, which flows only in the winter, in midst of the Sinai
But the Bible plainly declares it is the River of Egypt, not the
river of the Sinai peninsula. It is not the river of the Philistines.
It is the river of Egypt!
There is only one river of Egypt -- the Nile.
God gave Abraham's descendants dominion to the river of Egypt, not
a dry river bed in the middle of the Sinai desert. His descendants --
the British and other Western Europeans -- built the Suez Canal.
The very fact that God used Israel to bulled the Suez Canal is in
itself proof that the children of Israel should possess the land of
Egypt about Suez to the Nile!
Certainly from fulfilled prophecy the river of Egypt is the Nile
-- Joshua 15:4. This Scripture tells us that the border of the land in
the south "passed toward Azmon, and went out unto the river of Egypt;
and the goings out of that coast were at the sea: this shall be your
Also in verse 47, "Ashdod with her towns and her villages, Gaza
with her towns and her villages, unto the river of Egypt, and the great
sea, and the border thereof."
In I Kings 8:65 we find the same border: "And at that time Solomon
held a feast, and all Israel with him, a great congregation, from the
entering in of Hamath (near the Euphrates) unto the river of Egypt"
celebrated a festival.
Now we want to find out if God ever caused the children of Israel
to possess the territory east of the Nile. Was the land east of the
Nile ever possessed by the children of Israel?
WHERE IS GOSHEN?
Notice what the Egyptians themselves promised for the children of
Israel because of what Joseph did for them. Here is what we find in
Genesis 45:10, "And thou shalt dwell in the land of Goshen," says
Joseph to his father at Pharaoh's command, "and thou shalt be near unto
me, thou, and thy children, and thy children's children, and thy
flocks, and thy herds, and all that thou hast."
Jacob and all of the family of Israel could dwell in the land of
But -- where is the land of Goshen?
Modern scholars tell us that it is a small, semi-desolate area
east of the Nile halfway between the Nile and the Suez Canal today.
This is supposed to be the land with which God blessed Jacob in the
land of Egypt.
Because critics have assumed this is the land of Goshen, they
cannot believe that there were 600,000 Israelite men, beside women and
children, at the time the exodus occurred.
Of course in this area which the scholars tell us is the land of
Goshen, there couldn't have even been 6,000 men, beside women and
children, with all of their cattle. The fact is, scholars haven't
understood where the land of Goshen is.
Genesis 46:28 tells us more of the story. "And he (Jacob) sent
Judah before him unto Joseph, to direct his face unto Goshen." Jacob
was coming down from Beersheba in Palestine into Egypt. "And they came
into the land of Goshen. And Joseph made ready his chariot, and went up
(northward) to meet Israel his father, to Goshen, and presented himself
Did you notice that Joseph was not in the land of Goshen? Joseph
dwelt where Pharaoh was. And Pharaoh was at Memphis, the capital of
lower Egypt. "Joseph made ready his chariot, AND WENT UP TO MEET Israel
his father." He went up to Goshen. He was going NORTH. Therefore, the
land of Goshen was NORTH of the capital of Egypt at this time.
Now verses 33 and 34 of Genesis 46: "And it shall come to pass,
when Pharaoh shall call you, and shall say, What is your occupation?"
-- Joseph instructs his father to say this -- "That ye shall say, Thy
servants' trade hath been about cattle from our youth even until now,
both we, and also our fathers; that ye may dwell in the land of Goshen;
for every shepherd is an abomination unto the Egyptians." Egyptians
often hired foreigners to tend to their cattle. So the purpose was to
have the children of Israel dwell in the land of Goshen to tend cattle
Chapter 47, verge 5 continues the story. "And Pharaoh spake unto
Joseph, saying, Thy father and thy brethren are come unto thee: The
land of Egypt is before thee; in the best of the land make thy father
and brethren to dwell; in the land of Goshen let them dwell: and if
thou knowest any men of activity among them, then make them rulers over
Did you notice that Pharaoh said to the children of Israel, "The
land of Egypt is before you, the best of the land, the land of Goshen."
This is the portion of Egypt that Pharaoh is actually turning over to
the children of Israel because of what Joseph did!
Remember, God told Abraham that his descendants were going to
control land to the river of Egypt -- the Nile. This is how God began
to fulfill that promise!
Now to verse 10: "And Jacob blessed Pharaoh, and went out from
before Pharaoh. And Joseph placed his father and his brethren, and gave
them a possession in the land of Egypt, in the best of the land, in the
land of Rameses, as Pharaoh had commanded."
The best of the land, in verse 6, is called "the land of Goshen,"
while in verse 11, it is called "the land of Rameses."
Obviously, then, the land of Goshen and the land of Rameses are
the same! It is the best of all the land of Egypt.
THE LAND OF RAMESES
One of the titles belonging to rulers of Egypt was "Rameses." This
title, one of several applied to the rulers of Egypt, existed from the
beginning of Egyptian history -- long before the Pharaoh "Rameses the
Great" of history, who actually began to reign in 773 (see Vol. I of
Ancient Egypt was a feudalistic world. In feudalism the king
claims theoretically to own everything He leased the land out to his
princelings and lords (who lease parts of their land to others of still
lower rank), but the king reserves a certain portion for himself.
Pharaoh naturally reserved the best land for himself -- the land
of Goshen. It belonged personally to Pharaoh. So Pharaoh was not taking
land leased to his lords. He is granting this territory to Joseph, who
was next highest in the kingdom, for his service. The fee for receiving
the land of Goshen of Rameses is stated in verse 6 "And if thou knowest
any men of activity among them, then make them rulers over MY cattle."
Where were Pharaoh's cattle? In the land of Goshen, the land of
Rameses. Pharaoh knew that if Joseph could bless all Egypt as he had
done, his family would also be bound to bless his own stock. But in so
doing, the Egyptians granted the right of the children of Israel to
this territory. And by command of their ruler all the land of Goshen,
the land of Rameses, is given to the children of Israel -- as partial
fulfillment of God's promise that Abraham's seed should extend to the
river of Egypt, to the Nile.
GOSHEN DURING THE PLAGUES
Continuing the story with Exodus 8:22. Another dynasty has risen
up; Moses is dealing with a new Pharaoh. One of the plagues is about to
occur: "I will sever in that day," God says, "the land of Goshen, in
which my people dwell, that no swarms of flies shall be there; to the
end thou (Pharaoh) mayest know that I am the Lord in the midst of the
earth. And I will put a division between my people and thy people:
tomorrow shall this sign be."
And this sign did occur, "... the Lord did so" (verse 24). These
flies contaminated and plagued all the land of Egypt where the
Egyptians were, but the flies did not plague the land where the
children of Israel dwelt.
The land of Goshen is a particular territory where the children of
Israel were dwelling. This was the land that had once belonged to the
royal house. God makes a separation between that land and the rest of
the land of Egypt.
Verse 26, chapter 9 tells us almost the same thing: "Only in the
land of Goshen, where the children of Israel were, was there no hail."
Now to Exodus 12:29, the night of the Passover. "And it came to
pass, that at midnight the Lord smote all the firstborn in the land of
Egypt" -- this was midnight on the 14th day -- "from the firstborn of
Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that
was in the dungeon (or the prisonhouse) and all the firstborn of
cattle. And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and
there was a great cry in Egypt; for there was not a house where there
was not one dead. And he called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said,
Rise up, and get you forth from among my people, both ye and the
children of Israel; and go, serve the Lord, as ye have said. Also take
your flocks and your herds, as ye have said, and be gone; and bless me
also. And the Egyptians were urgent upon the people, that they might
send them out of the land in haste; for they said (if they were to stay
there any longer), We be all dead men."
In verses 34 and 35 the story continues. "The children of Israel
next night -- the 15th of Abib -- having "spoiled the Egyptians" and
driven their cattle, the Israelites came to the city of Rameses.
Stop for the moment and consider these facts. God told Moses, "Go
not out of your houses until the morning."
Moses and Aaron naturally would have remained in their house this
night -- all of the night of the 14th. But Pharaoh, who was not a
firstborn son, came out of his house by night to find Moses and urge
him and all Israel to leave.
Modern critics tell us that Pharaoh at this time lived in the city
of Thebes in upper Egypt, the land of ancient Sheba. But they are all
wrong! Pharaoh's headquarters was at the city of Memphis. The ruling
dynasty in Moses' day came from Xois in the Delta, but the capital of
all lower Egypt was at Memphis. This is where the government
administration originated. It was at Memphis that Pharaoh that night
rose up and went to Moses, and said, "Get out of the land and all your
people, and he was urgent on them."
Pharaoh could not have been far from where Moses was. That very
night, he saddled his camel and went to Moses and Aaron! Wherever the
children of Israel observed the Passover was a place very near the city
Remember, Israel dwelt in all the land of Goshen, but they had
assembled in one particular area to keep the Passover. From this area
they journeyed on the daylight part of the 14th of Abib to the city of
Rameses, and met there the next night, the night of the 15th!
THE NIGHT OF THE EXODUS
"The children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about
six hundred thousand on foot that were men, beside children. And a
mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, even
very much cattle" (Ex. 12:37-38).
From here the children of Israel left on the night of the 15th!
Numbers 33:3 makes it even plainer. The children of Israel
"departed from Rameses in the first month, on the fifteenth day of the
first month; on the morrow after the passover the children of Israel
went out with an high hand in the sight of all the Egyptians."
Between the morning after the Passover and the next night, "the
children of Israel did according to the word of Moses; and they
borrowed of the Egyptians Jewels of silver, and Jewels of gold, and
raiment: And the Lord gave the people favour in the sight of the
Egyptians, so that they lent unto them," that is, paid them, "such
things as they required. And they spoiled the Egyptians," that is, they
took their wages that the Egyptians withheld from them for nearly two
Then they gathered at Rameses. Where was this city?
Let us read what Josephus plainly tells us. Josephus, "Antiquities
of the Jews", Book II, Chapter XV. "So the Hebrews went out of Egypt,
while the Egyptians wept, and repented that they had treated them so
hardly ... Now they took their journey by Letopolis, a place at that
time deserted, but where Babylon was built afterwards, when Cambyses
laid Egypt waste." So Rameses was the city of Letopolis, which later
under Persian rule, was called the city of Babylon. Did you know there
was also a Babylon in Egypt as well as in Mesopotamia where Nimrod
started his kingdom?
(NOTE: To view the chart placed here, see the file CMPDM2F.TIF in the
What city is this today? Josephus, writing in Greek, calls this
the city of Letopolis -- a Greek name for Rameses. Polis means city in
Greek. A metropolis is a "mother city." So Letopolis was the city of
Letona -- one of the names of Semiramis or Easter, the Queen of Heaven.
It is the same from which Latin has come. So this was one of the cities
dedicated anciently to the Queen of Heaven. No wonder it was also
called Babylon later!
"Smith's Classical Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography" says
of the city of Babylon in Egypt that it "is in later times called
Fostat OR OLD CAIRO, a fortress in lower Egypt on the right bank of the
Nile exactly opposite to the pyramids of Giza, and at the beginning of
the canal which connected the Nile with the Red Sea.
The city of Rameses, built by the children of Israel in honor of
the Pharaoh, was Letopolis, the very city which today the Mohammedans
call Old Cairo!
Notice the accompanying map. God gave the children of Israel the
land all the way to the Nile River. The land east of the Nile toward
Palestine was the land of Goshen. That's where the cattle of Israel
The capital city of lower Egypt was Memphis. That is where Pharaoh
had his court.
The children of Israel, when they assembled in Rameses, were
assembling at Old Cairo. Since they reached Rameses or Old Cairo on the
night after the Passover, they must have assembled for the Passover a
little to the south of Old Cairo -- near Memphis, Pharaoh's capital.
Memphis is on the west side of the Nile. Old Cairo is a little farther
north on the east of the Nile River. Old Cairo is but a suburb of
modern Cairo today. It is just an old section of town. Most visitors
are not even permitted today to see Old Cairo because it is such a
ramshackle place -- though it is not as deserted today as the children
of Israel found it then. That is why they met there -- because there
weren't Egyptians living in that area.
Many Bible maps cannot be relied upon. They disagree with each
other and with the Bible. The producers of these maps do not use the
Bible as evidence, but their human theories instead!
Josephus at least should know as much as the scholars today. And
when you put his evidence with the Bible, it's very clear that it had
to be near the city of Memphis where they kept the Passover! As the
congregation of Israel were leaving northward they gathered at the city
of Rameses, which Josephus calls Letopolls -- Babylon or Old Cairo in
ISRAEL BUILT PYRAMIDS
Israel naturally had their headquarters near Memphis because at
Memphis, the Egyptian orders were issued. That is the region where the
pyramids were built.
Interestingly enough, as we go through the account of Josephus we
find the following surprising facts. Josephus tells us in his
"Antiquities of the Jews" (Book II. Chapter IX) that the children of
Israel "were forced to channel (make channels for the river), to build
walls for the Egyptians and make cities and ramparts .... they set them
also to build pyramids (after the pattern of the Great Pyramid), and by
all this wore them out ..."
The majority of the pyramids start from Old Cairo and go south,
not north. The children of Israel must have labored in the area
centered at the region of Old Cairo and on south throughout the
heart-land of Egypt.
Notice a plain statement in the "Imperial Bible Dictionary"
(published in England, Volume 5, subject, "Rameses"): "Immediately
south of this region of Old Cairo there is an area where there were
ancient quarries in a rocky mountain, from which much of the material
for the pyramids was procured, and in which the poor Jews are said by
Manetho (an Egyptian historian) to have worked."
This confirms what Josephus tells us in his work entitled "Apion",
Book I, Chapter 26. Near these quarries on the east of the Nile
opposite Memphis is an area called "Mera-vad-Musa, or the 'Habitation
(or dwelling) of Moses.' " Moses was the leader and as he communicated
back and forth with Pharaoh it is logical that opposite Memphis, where
many of the lesser pyramids were built, Moses should have his
headquarters -- to this day bearing the name, "the Habitation of
Now continuing with the "Imperial Bible Dictionary": "From thence
(that is, Mera-vad-Musa or the "Habitation of Moses") they moved
northward, passing, as Josephus says, by ancient Babylon or Old Cairo,
and then by or over the city of modern Cairo, proceeding along the
direct route to the land of Canaan, as far as Succoth, or Berket el
Hadj, the 'Pool of the Pilgrims' ..." "Succoth" merely means booths
-- or an encampment. It was there Moslem pilgrims, to this day, can go
from Egypt over to Mecca, the holy city of the Mohammedan religion.
It is on the way that led out of Egypt to the wilderness of the
But let us go on to Numbers 33 and read the rest of the account.
"And they departed from Rameses (Old Cairo) in the first month, on the
fifteenth day of the first month ... and went out with a high hand in
the sight of all the Egyptians. For the Egyptians buried all their
firstborn, which the Lord had smitten among them: upon their gods also
the Lord executed judgments. And the children of Israel removed from
Rameses, and pitched in Succoth.
"And they departed from Succoth, and pitched in Etham, which is in
the edge of the wilderness. And they removed from Etham, and turned
again (literally turned back) unto Pihahiroth, which is before
Baalzephon: and they pitched before Migdol. And they departed from
before Pihahiroth, and passed through the midst of the sea into the
wilderness, and went three days' journey in the wilderness of Etham,
and pitched in Marah."
The miracle of the Red Sea! Did it really happen?
WHAT ROAD DID ISRAEL TAKE?
Now let us pick up the story with Exodus 13:17: "And it came to
pass, when Pharaoh had let the people go, that God led them not through
the way of the land of the Philistines." Here we have the first of
several highways named.
In ancient Egypt there were major roads which went out of Egypt.
One was "the way of the Red Sea" which was southeast from the Delta.
Another was "the way of Etham," or "the wilderness of Shur" which went
from Egypt through Beersheba. It was the road by which Jacob came down
into Egypt. The third is "the way of the land of the Philistines" which
went up from the coast through Gaza by the Mediterranean. See the
As Israel was proceeding north through Old Cairo, they could have
easily taken the way, or the highway of the Philistines -- the
Many assume that this road must have been by the Mediterranean.
They are wrong! The way of the land of the Philistines extended far
While the Israelites were still in Egypt, they could have traveled
by the road that led northward to the land of the Philistines. But,
instead of taking that, near as it was, God said, "Lest peradventure
the people repent when they see war, and return to Egypt," God led the
people about through the way of the wilderness of the Red Sea.
This is another road. This is the most southerly of the three
major roads in Egypt. Instead of taking the northerly route which would
have taken them through the land of the Philistines, or the middle
route in an easterly direction through Beersheba, they took the road
leading southeast into Sinai and Arabia. God led them, not straight
north, but through the way of the Red Sea.
This is the common road that even to this day the Moslem pilgrims
take to the holy city of Mecca in Arabia. It is a road that has been
used from the very beginning of time when human beings have dwelt in
the land of Egypt.
Continuing: "And the children of Israel went up harnessed (or, in
ranks of five) out of the land of Egypt" marching up the road. "And
Moses took the bones of Joseph (perhaps from the Great Pyramid just
west of Old Cairo?) with him: for he had straightly sworn the children
of Israel, saying, God will surely visit you; and ye shall carry up my
bones away hence with you. And they took their journey from Succoth,"
the first stopping point on this road which went toward the Red Sea.
And from there, they took their journey "and encamped in Etham, in the
edge of the wilderness (of Sinai)."
At this point, they could have gone straight out of Egypt into
Sinai, and Pharaoh never could have caught them! All they had to do was
to follow the road just as the Arabs do today -- out of Egypt through
the Sinai peninsula down through Arabia to Mecca.
Here they were at the border of Egypt, just north of the Red Sea,
not by the Mediterranean. What happened next?
Now "the Lord went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, to
lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them
light; to go by day and night" (Ex. 13:21). It took them the seven days
of Unleavened Bread to leave Egypt altogether.
God "took not away the pillar of the cloud by day, nor the pillar
of fire by night, from before the people" (verse 22). "And the Lord
spake unto Moses (Ex. 14:1-2), saying, Speak unto the children of
Israel, that they turn (don't continue, but turn sharply to the right)
and encamp before Pihahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, over against
Baalzephon: before it shall ye encamp by the sea." They now camp by the
WHERE ARE THESE PLACES?
The "Imperial Bible Dictionary" tells us again.
"Pihahiroth, therefore, must have been the name of some natural
locality, such as a mountain, or a range of mountains, a cliff,
precipice, cape or promontory. It is said of the children of Israel,
when (they were) overtaken by Pharaoh at the Red Sea, that they were
entangled in the land, being shut in by the 'wilderness' or mountains
Israel could not have gone farther in its line of march. Pharaoh
had them bottled up in front of the Pihahiroth range of mountains! Did
God make a mistake in leading them by the hand of Moses?
Israel ended up on an area at the upper portion of the Red Sea by
the Gulf of Suez where there is a huge mountain range that comes right
down to the sea. When they got into this area, it was like entering a
bag. They could not go any farther by land. The only place they could
go was out into the water because the mountain range comes right down
to the seashore.
Opposite Pihahiroth was Baalzephon. This must have been a city
where Baal was worshipped. Zephon means "the north." This was "Baal of
the North" -- the Baal that comes down from the north pole, clad in red
and white every December 25! This was the ancient seat of Santa Claus
They also camped near Migdol. Where was it?
Trumbull, in his book called "Kadesh-Barnea", page 377, reveals
something about the city of Migdol: "A short distance to the northwest
of Suez ... there is a station, or a pass, known as El Maktal" -- the
Migdol. "It is directly on the line of the Hajj, route." The Hajj is a
modern Arabic term for "the way of the Red Sea." The modern El Maktal
is "near the track noted ... as the 'Way of the Bed'ween into Ancient
Egypt.' " "Wilkinson judged 'from its name and position,' that this
represents 'the Migdol of the Bible.' "
As they encamped before Pihahiroth, which is a mountain range, and
Baalzephon, then Baalzephon was on the north, and Pihahiroth was the
mountain range on the south. Then between Migdol, in the west, and the
Red Sea, in the east, there is an area large enough for the children of
Israel to be bottled up.
The Red Sea is nearly 8 miles across here! There is a very
extensive area -- many thousands of feet wide -- which could have
opened up for the children of Israel to cross.
CROSSING THE RED SEA
Let's continue with Exodus 14:3: "For Pharaoh will say of the children
of Israel, They are entangled in the land, the wilderness hath shut
them in." And God hardened Pharaoh's heart, "And he took six hundred
chosen chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt, and captains over every
one of them. And the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt,
and he pursued after the children of Israel." Pharaoh overtook them
camping by the Red Sea on what probably was the sixth day of Unleavened
The Israelites were now frightened. They said in verse 12, "Let us
alone, that we may serve the Egyptians. For it had been better for us
to serve the Egyptians, than that we should die in the wildernese. And
Moses said unto the people, Fear ye not, stand still, and see the
salvation of the Lord, which he will shew to you to day: for the
Egyptians whom ye have seen to day, ye shall see them again no more for
ever. The Lord shall fight for you, and ye shall hold your peace. And
the Lord said unto Moses, Wherefore criest thou unto me? speak unto the
children of Israel, that they go forward" -- into the water? No!
Notice: "But lift thou up thy rod, and stretch out thine hand over
the sea, and divide it: and the children of Israel shall go on dry
ground through the midst of the sea."
The miracle was wrought when Moses stretched his rod forth. The
sea parted thousands of feet wide! Then the winds came in to drive back
the waters and to build them up as a wall on either side!
Now verse 21: "Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the
Lord caused the sea to go back." It was a miracle! Contrary to seasonal
weather a strong wind blew "all that night, and made the sea dry land,
and the waters were divided. And the children of Israel went into the
midst of the sea upon the dry ground: and the waters were a wall unto
them on their right hand, and on their left. And the Egyptians pursued,
and went in after them to the midst of the sea, even all Pharaoh's
horses, his charlots, and his horsemen. And it came to pass, that in
the morning watch the Lord looked unto the host of the Egyptians
through the pillar of fire and of the cloud, and troubled the host of
the Egyptians, And took off their chariot wheels, that they drove them
heavily: so that the Egyptians said, Let us flee from the face of
Israel; for the Lord fighteth for them against the Egyptians. And the
Lord said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand over the sea, that the
waters may come again upon the Egyptians, upon their charlots, and upon
their horsemen. And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and
the sea returned to his strength when the morning appeared; and the
Egyptians fled against it."
Here was an area wide enough for 600 chosen chariots of the
Egyptians to race through, beside a great many troops in order to
capture the nearly 2,000,000 Israelite men, women and children. Verse
28, the waters "returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen,
and all the host of Pharaoh that came into the sea after them; there
remained not so much as one of them. But the children of Israel walked
upon dry land in the midst of the sea ... Thus the Lord saved Israel
that day out of the hand of the Egyptians; and Israel saw the Egyptians
dead upon the sea shore. And Israel saw that great work which the Lord
did upon the Egyptians: and the people feared the Lord, and believed
the Lord, and his servant Moses."
EGYPT LEFT DESOLATE
Pharaoh was dead. His army was slain. There was not one left.
There was not even a solitary messenger to tell the Egyptians what
happened (Ps. 106:11).
Read Exodus 15:4: "Pharaoh's chariots and his host hath he cast
into the sea: his chosen captains also are drowned in the Red Sea. The
depths have covered them: they sank into the bottom as a stone. Thy
right hand, O Lord, is become glorious in power: thy right hand, O
Lord, hath dashed in pieces the enemy."
God won the battle for the children of Israel. They were delivered
out of the land of Egypt. They now rested on the peaceful shores of
Sinai, where even today such names as "Ayn Musa" and "Ras Musa" testify
to the Exodus. (See the map.) Not one of the Israelites perished, but
all the Egyptians who pursued were overthrown.
Josephus adds some vivid details to the same story! "The number
that pursued after them was six hundred chariots, with fifty thousand
horsemen, and two hundred thousand footmen, all armed. They also seized
on the passages by which they imagined the Hebrews might fly, shutting
them up between inaccessible precipices and the sea; for there was ...
a (ridge of) mountains that terminated at the sea, which were
impassable by reason of their roughness, and obstructed their flight;
wherefore they there pressed upon the Hebrews with their army"
("Antiquities of the Jews", Josephus, Book III, ch. xv, sec. 3).
A few verses in Psalm 77 are worth reading at this point. "I will
remember the works of the Lord: surely I will remember thy wonders of
old. I will meditate also of all thy work, and talk of thy doings"
(verse 11). What were God's doings?
We find them in verse 16: "The waters saw thee, O God, the waters
saw thee; they were afraid: the depths also were troubled. The clouds
poured out water: the skies sent out a sound: thine arrows also went
abroad. The voice of thy thunder was in the heaven: the lightnings
lightened the world: the earth trembled and shook. Thy way is in the
sea, and thy path in the great waters, and thy footsteps are not known.
Thou leddest thy people like a flock by the hand of Moses and Aaron."
Thunder and rain and great lightning shook the land that night. In
early morning the waters just poured in on Pharaoh as his chariot
became stuck in the mud at the bottom of the sea -- and he is there to
Psalm 78 also tells us a little about it. Verse 12: "Marvellous
things did he in the sight of their fathers, in the land of Egypt, in
the field of Zoan." The word "field" here is properly translated
elsewhere as "country" or "kingdom."
The "land of Egypt" is "the field," or "the country," or "the
kingdom of Zoan." Zoan gave its name to Egypt because it was the
earliest city built in Egypt (Numbers 13:22 says that it was built 7
years after Hebron and was apparently the first city built in
The country of Egypt was named after Zoan just as Israel was often
named after Samaria, or Judah was named after Jerusalem.
The miracles that God wrought were in the land of Egypt -- in the
land of Zoan. They mean the same thing! These miracles did not occur in
some obscure field outside the city of Zoan near the Mediterranean!
EGYPT'S HISTORIANS ADMIT WHAT HAPPENED
That is the story of the miracle of the Red Sea. And it is
corroborated from the Egyptians' own record of history!
From the Exodus forward, Egypt was for almost four centuries
overrun by Amalekites (or Hyksos, the Egyptian word for "shepherds")
and punished for having enslaved the Israelites. Even as late as the
days of Saul and David the Amalekites dominated Egypt.
In I Samuel 30 David meets an Egyptian slave led by his Amalekite
master to die in the wilderness. "And David said to him, To whom
belongest thou? and whence art thou? And he said, I am a young man of
Egypt, servant to an Amalekite; and my master left me ..." (verse
The ancient Egyptian historian Manetho admits all this: "There was
a king of ours whose name was Timaus (a petty dynast) at the time of
the Exodus. Under him it came to pass, I know not how, that God was
averse to us, and there came after a surprising manner, men of ignoble
birth out of the eastern parts (the Amalekites), and had boldness
enough to make an expedition into our country, and with ease subdued it
by force, yet without our hazarding a battle with them ..." ("Against
Apion" by Josephus, Book I, Part 14).
So the historical record of Egypt, when rightly understood,
confirms the Bible. There was neither Pharaoh nor army left to defend
the country! They disappeared in the Red Sea without leaving a trace.
Not until the days of King Saul did Egypt recover her former power.
The miracle of the Red Sea did happen! The Bible is true!
JOURNEY TO PETRA
Why should the valley through Petra be named after Moses -- if
Moses was never there? Could it be that Moses and the children of
Israel actually assembled in Petra before entering the Promised Land?
Why are so many chapters in the Bible devoted to the minute
details of the journey of Israel from Egypt to Palestine? Have these
chapters hitherto undisclosed historical meaning?
AFTER MOUNT SINAI -- WHERE?
Today, almost no one supposes Israel ever saw Petra. Yet not more
than two centuries ago it was common knowledge among scholars that
Moses, Aaron, Miriam and the children of Israel journeyed through
Now notice what really happened when Israel was about to leave
Mount Sinai. It is found in Numbers 10:11-12. "And it came to pass on
the twentieth day of the second month, in the second year (after the
Exodus), that the cloud was taken up from off the tabernacle .... And
the children took their journeys" -- the original Hebrew reads "set
forward by stages" (Jewish translation) -- "out of the wilderness of
Sinai; and the cloud rested in the wilderness of Paran."
From Numbers 9:15 to 23, we learn that the encampments of Israel
were determined by the movement of the cloud above the tabernacle. When
the cloud was stationary, the people abode in their tents. When the
cloud ascended and moved forward, the people followed it. The Eternal
-- the God of Israel, who later came in the flesh as Christ -- was in
that cloud! He was leading Israel. He determined their movements. Where
did He take them? To "the wilderness of Paran," says Numbers 10:12.
But where is Paran?
Men assume it may mean the Sinai Peninsula, southwest of
Palestine. They are only guessing! They don't really know! Where does
the Bible say it is?
First, let's understand what the word "Paran" means. "Young's
Concordance" gives the surprising definition: "Full of caverns." Paran
comes from the Hebrew root meaning "to dig out," or "to cut out,"
according to the "Encyclopaedia Biblica"; hence, "to embellish or
decorate" ("Strong's Concordance").
Here is a wilderness famous for a place in it which is full of
caverns or caves! -- embellished or decorated with tombs! Is this place
Petra? We shall see. Certainly no city is more famous for its
beautifully carved caves than Petra!
Notice also that Ishmael -- the ancestor of the Arabians -- "dwelt
in the wilderness of Paran" (Genesis 21:21). It does not say he dwelt
in Sinai. The scripture reads Paran. And where is the ancestral home of
the Arabs? In Arabia, east of the Sinai Peninsula! That indicates that
the wilderness of Paran borders on Arabia!
Now turn to Numbers 12:16. Note what it says -- the children of
Israel pitched their tents "in the wilderness of Paran." From here
Moses sent the twelve men to spy out the land of Palestine. "And Moses
sent them from the wilderness of Paran according to the commandment of
the Lord" (Numbers 13:3).
After forty days "they came to Moses, and to Aaron, and to all the
congregation of the children of Israel, unto the wilderness of Paran,
to Kadesh" (Numbers 13:26). Kadesh is a city (Numbers 20:16).
WHAT DOES "KADESH" MEAN?
Why was this city called "Kadesh"? In Hebrew, the word Kadesh
means "holy." (See "Young's Concordance".) What made the place holy?
God did! God is holy. God dwelled in the cloud over the tabernacle. The
cloud abode in the wilderness of Paran in Kadesh. God's presence
sanctified the city and gave the name Kadesh to it.
Kadesh has more than one name. In the book of Numbers, God
commanded Israel to go up and possess the land, beginning from "Kadesh"
(Numbers 13:26). But in Deuteronomy 9:23 we read: "Likewise when the
Lord sent you from Kadesh-barnea, saying, 'Go up and possess the land
which I have given you'; then ye rebelled ...." Kadesh-barnea is
therefore another name for Kadesh.
Why should the city of Kadesh also be called "Kadesh-barnea"? The
Hebrew word "barnea" comes from two Hebrew words, "bar" and "nua". The
root meaning of "nua" (sometimes spelled "nuwa") is "to waver or
wander." It is often translated in the Old Testament as "wanderer,"
"vagabond," "fugitive." "Bar" means "son." It is used in such
expressions as Bartimaeus, meaning "the son of Timaeus" (Mark 10:46),
"Simon Bar-Jona" -- Simon the son of Jona (Matthew 16:17).
It was at Kadesh (Numbers 13:26) that the Israelites wavered in
their faith. They refused to trust God (Numbers 14:1, 11). As a
punishment they had to wander or be fugitives in the wilderness. "And
the Lord's anger was kindled against Israel, and he made them wander in
the wilderness forty years, until all the generation that had done evil
in the sight of the Lord was consumed" (Numbers 32:13).
Kadesh was never referred to as Kadesh-barnea until after the
Israelites wavered in their faith and had to wander as a punishment
(Numbers 32:8). The significance of the name barnea, then, is "the
Observe, now, in what mountain range Kadesh is to be found.
LOCATED IN MOUNT SEIR!
"And we journeyed from Horeb, and went through all that great and
dreadful wilderness which ye saw, by the way to the hill country of the
Amorites, as the Lord our God commanded us: and we came to
Kadesh-barnea" (Deuteronomy 1:19).
The "hill country of the Amorites" is defined by Moffatt in Judges
1:36 as extending "from the Scorpion Pass ("Akrabbim" in King James
Version) to Sela and beyond it." Sela is Petra!
Consider another vital point. To reach Kadesh from Horeb or Sinai
(Horeb is another name for Sinai -- Malachi 4:4 and Deuteronomy
4:10-13), the usual eleven-day route went "by the way of Mount Seir"!
Or, in other words, Israel journeyed by the Mount Seir road! But where
is Mount Seir?
Mount Seir is that chain of mountains between Arabia and the
Arabah or "plain" mentioned so often in the Bible. It lies east of the
Arabah and extends from the Gulf of Aqaba north to near the Dead Sea.
Most maps in the back of a Bible will have these places located
correctly. These maps, however, misplace Kadesh. The "Kadesh" usually
located in the Sinai Peninsula is not the city Moses describes, but is
the "Kedesh" of Joshua 15:23 instead -- another place altogether.
Now consider this: if the wilderness of Paran and Kadesh were in
the Sinai Peninsula southwest of Palestine, there would be no reason
for traveling by the way of Mount Seir!
The only reason one would have to travel by the Way of Mount Seir
-- or by the Mount Seir Road -- is that Paran and Kadesh lay east of
the Sinai Peninsula -- in other words, in the vicinity of Petra!
Take another scripture -- Deuteronomy 1:6-7: "The Lord our God
spoke unto us in Horeb, saying: 'Ye have dwelt long enough in this
mountain; turn you, and take your journey, and go to the hill-country
of the Amorites and unto all the places nigh thereunto, in the Arabah
(in the King James Version it is called "the plain"), in the
hill-country, in the Lowland, and in the South, and by the sea-shore of
the Canaanites, and Lebanon, as far as the great river, the river
Euphrates' " (Jewish translation).
Did you notice that? Israel was to journey to the Amorite
hill-country, where Kadesh was located. From there they were to enter
the promised land from the east, to proceed westward to the shore of
the Mediterranean, and then go north to Lebanon and the Euphrates
(verse 21). The first part of the promised land they would enter was
the Arabah -- the wilderness just west of Petra in Mount Seir!
Here is just one more proof that Kadesh and the wilderness of
Paran were east of the Arabah -- east of the Sinai Peninsula -- in
Mount Seir, in the vicinity of Petra!
ISRAEL WHIPPED IN SEIR
But this is not all the evidence. Notice! When Israel refused to
trust God, He sternly told them: "Surely they shall not see the land
which I sware unto their fathers, neither shall any of them see it"
(Numbers 14:23). Upon receiving this rebuke, they imperiously said:
"Lo, we be here, and will go up unto the place which the Lord hath
promised: for we have sinned. And Moses said, Wherefore now do ye
transgress the commandment of the Lord .... Go not up, for the Lord is
not among you; that ye be not smitten before your enemies .... But they
presumed to go up unto the hill top: ... Then the Amalekites came down,
and the Canaanites which dwelt in that hill, and smote them, and
discomfited them, even unto Hormah" (Numbers 14:40-45).
Notice where this disaster befell Israel. The people were defeated
even to Hormah. Where is Hormah?
"And the Amorites" -- who were Canaanites -- "came out against
you, as bees do, and destroyed you in Seir, even unto Hormah"!
It was in Seir -- in the mountain range where Petra is located --
that Israel was handed this severe defeat. This was not somewhere in
the Sinai wilderness. This was in Seir. The Bible says so!
YET ANOTHER PROOF!
Kadesh is also said to be located in "the Wilderness of Zin." "For
ye rebelled," God told Moses, "against my commandment in the desert of
Zin, in the strife of the congregation, to sanctify me at the water
before their eyes: that is the water of Meribah in Kadesh in the
wilderness of Zin" (Numbers 27:14).
Since Kadesh is located in the wilderness of Paran and in the
wilderness or Zin, it certainly appears that Zin and Paran are two
different names for the same wilderness, doesn't it? What does "Zin"
mean? Here is the answer!
The spies began to search the promised land from the city of
Kadesh-barnea. That is recorded in Deuteronomy 1:19-23. Kadesh was
their starting point. It was an important city on the border of the
promised land. It was in fact one of the promised "gates of your
enemies" (Genesis 22:17). But according to Numbers 13:21, we discover
that "they went up, and searched the land from the wilderness of Zin
The Wilderness of Zin is mentioned no less than ten times in the
Bible. Invariably the only city associated with it is Kadesh. Kadesh is
also the only city associated with Paran. Remember that Paran means
"caverns." But what does Zin mean?
It comes from the Hebrew root meaning a mountainous crag, as if
piercing the sky! (See "Strong's Concordance".) Here is what the
"Encyclopaedia Biblica" says: Zin "may mean the 'wall' of rock within
which the wilderness of Zin lies"!
What better description could we find for the region of Petra than
this! Petra is famous for its stupendous crags jutting high into the
sky. Is it a coincidence that Petra -- with its rocky crags and its
caves -- is the only city in the region of Arabia from which the words
Paran and Zin can both be derived?
Some have been confused between the "Wilderness of Zin" and the
"Wilderness of Sin." They are not the same. They are spelled
differently in Hebrew. The Wilderness of Sin was reached by Israel
before they even came to Sinai (Exodus 16:1). The wilderness of Zin was
reached after Israel departed from Sinai. Sin was northwest of Sinai.
Zin was far to the northeast of Mount Sinai.
WHERE WAS THE "WILDERNESS OF WANDERING"?
The epoch-making night following the return of the twelve spies,
"all the congregation lifted up their voice, and cried; and the people
wept" (Numbers 14:1). Their anger rose to rebellion next day. They
hurled the accusation "Would God we had died in this wilderness" (verse
When God heard it, He ordered Moses to tell the people: "Tomorrow
turn you, and get you into the wilderness by the way of the Red sea"
(verse 25, last half).
Remember, Israel was already in the wilderness of Zin or Paran.
Now God orders them to leave Kadesh and go into the wilderness by the
Way of the Red Sea -- that is, by the Red Sea Road. They reached Kadesh
by the Mount Seir Road. Now they are to leave by another route for an
area called "the wilderness."
After their crushing defeat that morning at Hormah, Moses
reported: "And ye returned and wept before the Lord; but the Lord would
not hearken to your voice, nor give ear unto you. So you abode in
Kadesh many days" -- how long? "According unto the days (the forty days
of anxious waiting for the spies' return) that you abode there"
God would not let them remain in Kadesh any longer. He was
determined that they were to leave that day for the wilderness, rather
than enter Palestine. They did not deserve the promised land. They
despised it. The many days of waiting, in which they dwelled in Kadesh,
comprised over forty long days. When the spies returned, they rebelled.
Thus, instead of entering the land of Canaan, Moses wrote: "Then we
turned, and took our journey into the wilderness by the way of the Red
sea, as the Lord spake unto me" (Deuteronomy 2:1).
The children of Israel now move southwest from Kadesh. They take
the road that leads to the Red Sea in order to journey into the
wilderness. This is the wilderness which they had asked to die in
(Numbers 14:2) -- and in it they were going to die! Moses called it
"that great and dreadful wilderness" -- the edge of which they passed
through when journeying from Sinai to Mount Seir (Deuteronomy 1:19).
This wilderness in the Sinai Peninsula has been called throughout
history simply Et Tih -- meaning "the Wilderness"; or Badiyat et-Tih
Beni Israel -- meaning "the Wilderness of the Wanderings of the
Children of Israel." This designation runs back in the Arabian
historians as far back as we have any track of their name for this
desert," says Trumbull, on page 67 of "Kadesh-barnea".
Nowhere in all the Bible is this area ever called Zin or Paran! It
is entirely mislabeled on most Bible maps today. Nearly thirty-seven
and one-half years were spent wandering in this desolate, arid region.
No notice is taken of any wilderness encampments during those years.
Only a few major events occurring during the period are recorded in
Numbers 15 through 19.
ENCAMPMENTS LISTED IN ORDER
Before we proceed further, let's consider Numbers 33. This entire
chapter is devoted to the encampments of the children of Israel. This
list of seemingly unimportant encampments may have far more importance
for us today than we dream! Everything is placed in the Bible for a
Turn now to Numbers 33. Beginning with verse 1: "These are the
journeys of the children of Israel .... And Moses wrote their goings
out according to their journeys by the commandment of the Lord." Then
Moses lists the stopovers to Sinai (verse 15).
We have read in Deuteronomy 1:2 that the trip could be made from
Sinai to Kadesh in eleven days of normal travel. The Israelites took
longer, of course. Sometimes they remained a week (Numbers 12:15) or a